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Tamás Mester, György Szabó, Éva Bessenyei, Gergő Karancsi, Norbert Barkóczi and Dániel Balla

Abstract

In our study we attempt to demonstrate the effects of uninsulated sewage tanks, which are the most important sources of contamination in settlements without sewage systems, on groundwater quality. We compared the results of measurements carried out before and one and a half years after the construction of the sewage system. We established 3 m deep monitoring wells within a 25 m radius of a sewage tank, which were then sampled, and the level of groundwater was recorded. The 3D model constructed on the basis of the saturated zone shows that the effluent wastewater formed a groundwater level dome with a height of more than 1 m. After the sewage tank was taken out of use the difference between the highest and lowest groundwater levels decreased to a few centimetres. In our study we investigated the spatial distribution of NH4 + (ammonium). Using the 3D model we were able to precisely determine the volume of water bodies with different levels of contamination. In an approximately 25 m3 water body, in the immediate environment of a sewage tank in use we detected NH4 + at a concentration which was characteristic of undiluted wastewater (>90 mg·dm−3). After the sewage tank was taken out of use, the concentration in its immediate environment decreased by more than 50%, although almost everywhere in the modelled area concentrations were measured above the limit value. Based on the above, we can conclude that the cleaning process has started, but the complete decontamination of the groundwater will take several years.

Open access

Dániel Balla, Tamás Mester, László Márta, Dávid Molnár, Norbert Barkóczi, Marianna Zichar, Ágnes Botos and Tibor József Novák

Abstract

In our study, by investigating reambulated soil profiles from the Nagy-Sárrét region in Hungary, we attempt to determine the extent of changes which have occurred due to effects which impacted the landscape in terms of the soil chemistry properties of soil profiles exposed during the Kreybig soil survey more than 70 years ago. Based on the results, in the areas used as grassland, we observed a decrease in pH and an increase in the humus content of the topsoil. The increased CaCO3 following the chemical improvement of the soil which was used as cropland is still characteristic of the area. During the past decades, the investigated soils have been affected by significant changes with regard to water management, which have also modified the investigated parameters. We have classified the reambulated soil profiles among the Solonetz, Vertisol, and Gleysol reference groups based on the World Reference Base of Soil Resources (WRB) diagnostic system.