Aspects of Language and Identity in Transylvania between the Two World Wars
The article discusses the Transylvanian case of border crossings, the historical changes experienced by the communities living on this territory between 1918, the end of World War I, and 1944. The study starts with a short theoretical introduction to border studies and to the concept of border crossing, discussing aspects such as the issue of state and societal borders, power relations and sovereignty, and the negotiation of new identities within new state borders (understood both geographically and ideologically). The article analyses several fragments of texts that were published in one of the most important Hungarian newspapers in Transylvania, focusing on the concept of the border, on language rights, and minority rights as well as on some aspects of the linguistic landscape with special regard to the visibility or erasure of minority communities. The article concludes that the discussed instance of border crossing is particular in its nature as it shows similarities with the typical cases of border crossing; however, the staticity of the community itself and the movement of the border creates new possibilities for discussion.
The paper aims at presenting the linguistic attitudes and the underlying ideologies of the students of the Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania towards their mother tongue and the Romanian language. It provides a brief summary of the most important theoretical aspects entailed (definitions and an overview of the Hungarian sociolinguistic research on linguistic attitudes and ideologies) with special regard to István Lanstyák’s classification of linguistic ideologies. The paper continues with the presentation of the University, of the population and the sample used in the research, and the distribution of the respondents by faculty, sex, age, place of origin, nationality and mother tongue. In the following chapter, the perceived Romanian competence and the attitudes of the students towards the Romanian language is discussed. The last part of the paper gives a qualitative analysis of the responses to the question Where do you think is the most beautiful Hungarian spoken?, focusing on the issues of linguistic attitudes of the students and the ideologies behind them regarding their opinions on the most beautiful variety of the Hungarian language.
There is a recurrent debate in the scholarly literature on interpreting studies: are interpreters made or bom? While classical interpreting schools state that great interpreters are bom and that formation and development is of a secondary importance, the newest publications on this topic place a much greater stress on the formation and development of interpreting abilities, skills, and competences. The latest results also challenge several ideas and stereotypes concerning the personality and attitudes of interpreters. This article outlines the position and situation regarding Hungarian interpreters in Romania with a special regard to the legal framework, and to the present state of professional training. The study also discusses why interpreters of Hungarian are much more likely to be bom in Romania, and not made, (a factor that hinders the professionalization of Hungarian interpreters in Romania). Equally significant are the legislative loopholes which enable untrained individuals to perform interpreting activities (even economic activities), the result of which is a significantly poorer image of the profession, and a lowering of the quality of work it produces. We also give a short overview of the translation and interpreting programmes. As the majority of the Hungarian population in Romania reside in Transylvania, we confine our overview to Transylvanian universities.