Percent of body fat (PBF), fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) are useful indicators for the assessment of body composition. The present study was conducted among 1351 children (boys: 660; girls: 691) aged 5-12 years residing in West Bengal, Eastern-India. The children were selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and sub-scapular skinfold (SSF) were recorded using standard procedures. The PBF, PBF-for-age z-score (PBFZ) and body mass index (BMI) were subsequently calculated. Body composition was assessed using FM, FFM, fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI). Age-specific mean values of FM ranged from 2.12-4.00 kg (boys) and 2.16-4.40 kg (girls). Age-specific mean values of FFM ranged from 14.45-23.93 kg (boys) and 14.01-23.03 kg (girls). Sex-specific mean differences between sexes were statistically significant in weight, height, TSF, SSF, PBF, PBFAZ, FM, FFM, FMI and FFMI (p<0.05), except in BMI (p>0.05). These results are important for future investigations in clinical and epidemiological settings so as to accurately identify the risk of lower or higher adiposity and body composition using PBF, FM and FFM.
Upper arm anthropometry has a potential role to provide useful estimations of body composition and nutritional status. Aims of the present cross-sectional study were to assess body composition and nutritional status of rural school-going children using upper arm anthropometric measures such as upper arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for-height. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 1281 children of West Bengal, India (boys 619, girls 662) aged 5-12 years and selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, MUAC and triceps skinfold (TSF) were recorded. Body composition and nutritional status were assessed using upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), UAMAH and MUAC-forheight. Age-sex-specific overall adiposity in TSF, UFA, arm fat index and upper-arm fat area estimates were higher among girls than boys (p<0.01), but UMA and upper-arm muscle area estimates were observed to be higher among boys than girls (p<0.05). High prevalence of undernutrition was found among both boys (53.15%) and girls (41.69%) using UAMAH (p<0.01). The overall prevalence of low MUAC-forheight was higher among boys (28.59%) than girls (25.68%) (p>0.05). Upper arm anthropometric measures, UAMAH and MUAC-for-height are useful for assessment of body composition and nutritional status among children.
Undernutrition is considered to be a serious public health problem in most of the developing countries. Globally, the anthropometric measures are widely used to estimate the magnitude of undernutrition in children. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) provides the overall magnitude of undernutrition as an aggregate single measure over the conventional anthropometric indices and helps in identification of single or double or multiple anthropometric failures in preschool children. The present investigation assesses the age-sex specific prevalence of undernutrition using both conventional anthropometric measures and CIAF among Sonowal Kachari tribal preschool children of Assam, India. This cross-sectional investigation was carried out among 362 (162 boys and 190 girls) Sonowal Kachari tribal children younger than 5 years of flood affected regions of Lakhimpur district of Assam, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were measured using standard procedures. Age-sex specific Z-score value of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height were calculated by using WHO-Anthro, v. 3.2.2. A child Z-score <−2.00 of any anthropometric indices was considered to be undernourished and the standard CIAF classification was used to calculate the prevalence of undernutrition. The overall prevalence of wasting, underweight, stunting and CIAF was observed to be 11.6%, 22.9%, 36.2%, and 48.6%, respectively. The sex-specific prevalence of wasting (15.8% vs. 6.9%), underweight (30.5% vs. 14.5%) and stunting (42.1% vs. 29.6%) observed to be significantly higher among girls than boys (p<0.05). The girls (61.05%) were found to be more affected than boys (34.9%) by CIAF (p<0.01). The present investigation reported higher magnitude of undernutrition using CIAF over conventional anthropometric measures, hence the CIAF is relatively better indicator that reflects higher magnitude of undernourishment as compared to any conventional anthropometric indices in children. This research investigation has also reinforced the importance of appropriate intervention programme and strategies needed to reduce the prevalence of undernutrition in childhood and in population as a whole.
The prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) is a key indicator of long-term chronic undernutrition which reflects an anthropometric failure to reach linear growth potentials due to prolonged food deprivation and/or disease or illness during the early stage of life. The present study assesses the prevalence and socio-economic and demographic correlates of stunting among adolescents of the North-east India. This cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1,818 (830 boys; 988 girls) adolescents (aged 10-18 years) belonging to ethnically heterogeneous populations of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, using stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were recorded using standard procedures. Socio-economic and demographic variables were obtained using pre-structured schedule. The age-sex specific L, M and S reference values were used to calculate height-for-age Z-score (HAZ). According to WHO, HAZ found to be <−2SD was classified as stunting. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, chi-square analyses, binary and step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis in SPSS (version, 17.0). The prevalence of stunting was observed to be significantly higher among boys (48.4%) than girls (37.8%) (p<0.01). Age-sex specific prevalence was found to be higher among boys than girls aged 14-18 years and contrary were observed among girls aged 10-14 years (p>0.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that several socio-economic and demographic variables were significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). The step-wise multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex (boys), age groups (13-15 years and 16-18 years), father’s occupation (cultivator) and Rupees ≤5000 household income was significantly associated with stunting (p<0.05). Appropriate nutritional intervention programmes and dissemination of knowledge at population level related to undernutrition are necessary to ameliorate their nutritional status.
Neck circumference (NC) is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544) residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m-2) was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05).The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80%) than females (19.12%) (p<0.01). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01). The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01). Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto- use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.