The paper deals with the role of the landscape in the shaping of the national identity in the final stage of the formation of the Czech modern nation. The topic is treated through the perspective of two pairs of Bohemian landscape features (Říp and Blaník Mountains, and the rivers Vltava and Elbe), both rich in symbolism. This concept was further highlighted by the travelling panel exhibition Story of Landscape at the Nation’s Service, which was held in the Lapidarium of the National Museum in the autumn of 2018. The present text is based on the research of literature and period sources (collection items) located in the National Museum Library and in the Historical Museum of the National Museum. The author presents the landscape as an important national symbol which has assumed this function through its relation to stories based on national history. The landscape is perceived here not only as a real (physical) environment, as a scene where a wide range of national and later tourist activities took place, but also as a symbolic space closely connected to the ideas of individuals within the national society.