Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is the most common cause of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents. It is also the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism with or without goiter. The incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis has increased dramatically over the past few decades, affecting up to 5% of the general population in iodine sufficient areas. HT is caused by the complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and endogenous factors. Significant progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the genes involved in pathogenesis of the disease.
The aim of this review is to analyze current opinions and options regarding the etiology, genetic contribution to the pathogenesis, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of the HT in children.