Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%). Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months). All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%), IIIA (40%), and IV (40%). Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80%) and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%). One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each), and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.
This case report details the clinical picture of a renal transplant recipient infected with community acquired Legionella pneumonia. While it is more commonly associated as a nosocomial infection due to pathogenic organisms in a hospital’s water supply, this case serves as a reminder to consider the patient’s impaired cellular immune function when trying to diagnose community acquired pneumonia.
Introduction. Tacrolimus extended-release formulation enables once-daily use. Although an increasing number of patients have been converted from twice-daily (Tac- BID) to once-daily (Tac-QD) formulation, the available information regarding the initiation and follow-up of Tac- QD is sparse. In the present study we investigated influence of switch from Tac-BID or cyclosporine to Tac-QD on renal allograf function, proteinuria and protein-creatinine (P/C) ratio. Methods. Between October 2012 and October 2014, the switch from Tac-BID or cyclosporine to tacrolimus extended-release formulation was done in 129(38% female, mean age 49 years) renal transplant recipients at different time after transplantation. The analysis focused on markers of graft function (GFR, serum creatinine, proteinuria, P/C ratio), liver function (AST, ALT, γGT, alkaline phosphatase) and blood glucose. Clinical data were obtained at baseline (before conversion), 1 month (V1), 6 months (V6) and 12 months (V12) after conversion. Results. Both serum creatinine and GFR showed a statistically significant improvement. With GFR, signifycant improvement was observed as early as V1 and it continued to increase throughout the study period up to V12 (all between-visit changes were statistically significant). With serum creatinine, mean levels were numerically decreasing throughout the follow-up period, but a significant improvement occurred at V6 and remained significant at V12 (both vs. V0 values). Proteinuria and P/C ratio did not show any significant change through the observation period. In the majority of patients, the baseline values of AST, ALT, GGT, AlP and glucose were within normal limits and did not change significantly through the observation period. Analysis of tacrolimus C0 showed a significant decrease throughout the follow-up period, at practically all visit. This finding was paralleled by a significant tacrolimus dose decrease from baseline to V6 and V12, as well as by a significant decrease of tacrolimus dose/body weight. Conclusions. Conversion from cyclosporine or Tac-BID to extended-release Tac-QD improves graft function in renal transplant recipients, without influence on proteinuria or P/C ratio.
Aim: Data on the use of novel anticoagulant drugs (NOACc) in renal transplant recipients is scarce. The aim of our study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of NOACs in renal transplant recipients.
Materials and Methods: In a single-centre retrospective cohort study we assessed adverse reactions, thromboembolic events, and interactions of calcineurin inhibitors in patients treated with NOACs.
Results: Twenty-three renal transplant recipients were treated with NOACs (70% male), mean age of 65.8 ± 1.8 years. Fourteen (61%) patients were treated with rivaroxaban, apixaban was given to 8 (35%) of our patients, and dabigatran to one patient (4%). The main indications for NOAC therapy was atrial fibrillation in 61% and deep venous thrombosis in 23% of patients. Bleeding occurred in 2 patients (1 treated with rivaroxaban and 1 with dabigatran). None of our patients developed thrombosis while treated with NOAC. During the median follow-up of 24 months graft function, as well as hematological parameters, remained stable in patients that were treated with rivaroxaban and apixaban, while dabigatran was ceased after a month of therapy due to a bleeding event.
Conclusion: Our results show that both rivaroxaban and apixaban are safe and efficient oral anticoagulant drugs in renal transplant patients. Additional studies are needed to prove these results.
Clinical and laboratory findings of kidney disease in an adult may find an explanation in kidney functional and/or structural abnormalities that already existed during infancy and childhood, but that may have been missed or underdiagnosed. All the cardiovascular abnormalities that occur in adults with chronic kidney disease are also present in children with chronic kidney disease. Complications in childhood chronic kidney disease will have consequences well beyond pediatric age and influence outcomes of affected young adults with disease. Kidney dysfunction appears early in the course of kidney disease and has been observed in children and adults with chronic kidney disease, condition characterised with kidney fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta is recognized as a major mediator of kidney fibrosis. New evidence illustrates the relationship between transforming growth factor beta signaling and microRNAs expression during kidney diseases development. MicroRNAs play important roles in kidney development and kidney diseases; they are naturally occurring, 22-nucleotide, noncoding RNAs that mediate posttranscriptional gene regulation. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is an indicator of several diseases including chronic kidney disease. Targeting microRNAs should be a therapeutic potential to ameliorate the disease related to fibrosis. The discovery that circulating miRNAs are detectable in serum and plasma, and that their expression varies as a result of disease, presents great potential to be used as biomarkers in kidney disease prevention and diagnosis.
Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is the second most common lysosomal storage disease. This is an X-linked disorder due to lysosomal enzyme deficiency of a-galac-tosidasae A, that results in accumulation of globotriaosyl-ceramide in various tissues leading to organ damage, and resulting in a variety of cardiovascular, renal, neural, der-matological, psychological signs and symptoms. Despite being X-linked, heterozygous females can suffer from symptoms equally severe as male hemizygotes. This paper presents signs, symptoms, specific diagnostic approach and treatment possibilities of AFD in female patients.
Introduction. There was no transplantation program in Montenegro until 2012. On the other hand, there were 93 patients with transplanted kidney. These transplantations were performed abroad; 15% in areas of black organ markets (India, Pakistan, Russian Federation). Beside the ethical problems, these transplantations carried a high risk of complications.
Methods. Our health system had to ensure solution for patients with terminal organ failure. Preparation of all neccessary conditions for the beginning of transplantation program in Montenegro started in 2006 with different activities including public, legal, medical, educational and international cooperation aspects.
Results. The first kidney transplantation from living donor in Montenegro was preformed on September 25th, 2012. In the period from 2012 until now 23 kidney transplantations from living related donor were performed and one kidney transplantation from deceased donor in the Clinical Center of Montenegro. In the a two year-follow-up period, all patients to whom kidney transplantation was performed are in a good condition and without serious complications in posttransplant period.
Conclusion. Development of the transplantation program allowed controlled transplantation and safety of patients. Our next steps are development of deceased organ donor transplantation and achievement of higher rate of deceased donor organ transplantation and individualization of immunosuppressive therapy.
Amiodarone is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and can increase serum concentrations of drugs that are substrates of this enzyme system. Immunosuppressive drugs are also metabolized through the cytochrome metabolic pathway what may lead to important drug-drug interactions. A 60-year-old female received her second allograft from the deceased donor and was treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids. Amiodarone was introduced for treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation four days after the transplantation. One month after the discharge she was readmitted to hospital for evaluation of the creeping creatinine. Biopsy showed borderline acute rejection. She received 3 boluses of 6- methilprednisolone but creatinine continued to rise. Repeated biopsy was without signs of rejection with mild interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, mild global glomerulosclerosis and moderate arterial sclerosis. However, tubular vacuolization was prominent. After careful revision of her therapy we decided to replace amiodarone with sotalol. One week later her creatinine fell from 350 to 220 μmol/l and remained stable. This case illustrates possible amiodarone nephrotoxicity in a renal transplant recipient. We suggest that patients who need amiodarone in combination with tacrolimus be closely monitored by both cardiologists and nephrologists, with frequent determinations of tacrolimus trough levels and serum creatinine measurements.
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infective pathogen in kidney transplant recipients. Valganciclovir (VAL) is commonly used for prophylaxis, especially in high-risk recipients. Generic VAL formulations have become available, but the data about their safety and efficacy are lacking.
Methods: Consecutive de novo kidney transplant patients were randomized to generic VAL Valganciklovir Teva® (VT group)(24 patients) or Alvanocyte® (A group), Alvogen (19 patients) or to Valcyte® (V group), Roche (23 patients) in a 18-month open-label study. Universal prophylaxis was used for 6 months after the transplantation. CMV DNA levels were measured at 1,3,6,9,12 and 18 months after the transplantation. All positive measurements of CMV DNA were recorded.
Results: Groups did not differ regarding the clinical characteristics or the risk for developing CMV infection in the post-transplant period. CMV replications were most common at 9 months after the transplantation with rates of 9% for the V, 13% for the VT and 26% for the A group (p=0.26). At 12 months, positive CMV DNA was recorded in 22%, 8% and 11 % of patients taking V, VT and A, respectively (p=0.37). Rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection, adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for all formulations. Lymphocele occurred most commonly in the V group (35%) compared to 17% in VT and 17% in the A group (p=0.23). One patient from each of the A and VT groups developed CMV disease. Additionally, they were the only two patients with CMV DNA copies above 656 IU/ml. Glomerular filtration rates were similar in all groups at all time points, while proteinuria was significantly higher at 12 months in patients who received V 0.32 g/day (0.18 – 0.42), compared to patients on VT 0.2 (0.1 – 0.2), or A 0.2 (0.2 – 0.3), p=0.04.
Conclusion: Valgancyclovir efficacy and safety in this limited data set is similar with early administration of V, VT and A after kidney transplantation. Additional studies aimed at elucidating the effectiveness of this treatment regimen in patients who are at high risk for developing CMV infection are necessary to draw further conclusions.