Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a very common cause of mortality and morbidity. The distinction between infected and non-infected DFU remains a very challenging task for clinicians in everyday practice. Even when infection is documented, the spectrum of diabetic foot infection is wide, ranging from cellulitis and soft tissue infection to osteomyelitis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a well-established sepsis biomarker, has been used in the diagnosis of several infections including osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review gathers and presents all the relevant data, up until now, regarding the use of PCT as an assessment tool in diabetic patients with foot infection. Current evidence suggests that PCT levels could aid clinicians in distinguishing infected from non-infected DFUs as well as in the distinction between soft tissue infection and bone involvement, but further and larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Introduction. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as calculated from the white cell differential blood count is a marker that has been used as a prognostic index when assessing patients suffering from several clinical syndromes, including sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NLR and the commonly used severity scores of sepsis SOFA, APACHE II and SAPS II in a population of emergency admitted adult patients with sepsis in a tertiary center.
Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece, based on data extracted from 50 patients consecutively enrolled, suffering from sepsis of multiple origin. The study period was from May 01, 2017 until June 30, 2017. The NLR was calculated from the total white blood cell (WBC) count values measured from a peripheral venous blood specimen drawn on admission. C-reactive protein (CRP) was also measured. The sepsis severity prognostic scores APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA were calculated for each patient.
Results. NLR was positively correlated with the sepsis severity prognostic scores on admission (SOFA, rs = 0.497, p < 0.001; APACHE II, rs = 0.411, p = 0.003; SAPS II, rs = 0.445, p = 0.001). Total WBC was also significantly correlated with the scores (SOFA, rs = 0.342, p = 0.015; APACHE II, rs = 0.384, p = 0.006; SAPS II, rs = 0.287, p = 0.043). Serum CRP did not show any significant correlation either to NLR or to the sepsis severity scores on admission.
Conclusions. NLR is an easily calculated, cost-efficient index that could be used as a tool for clinicians when assessing sepsis patients in the Emergency Department. Although NLR measurement is simple, and rapidly available, future and larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm its definite value as a prognostic index in sepsis patients.
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as calculated from the white cell differential blood count is considered a promising marker for the prognosis of patients with various diseases, including sepsis. This study was designed to assess the possible use of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in the prediction of survival outcomes in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). A secondary objective was to compare the prognostic accuracy of NLR with the commonly used severity scores of sepsis SOFA, APACHE II and SAPS II.
This was a retrospective study based on data extracted from 26 patients suffering from acute CAP. The study period was from February 01, 2017 until April 30, 2017. All patients with CAP were presented in the Emergency Department (ED) of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece and were treated after admission in the Internal Medicine Department. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was calculated from the white blood cell count (WBC) values measured from a peripheral venous blood specimen drawn on admission. It was then compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels and the sepsis calculated prognostic scores APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA. The impact of the above parameters was evaluated in relation to the final outcome.
The mean period of hospitalization for the enrolled patients was 9.3 days (SD 5.8 days). Twenty-four patients (92.3%) got finally discharged from the hospital and two (7.7%) died during the hospitalization. Mean NLR and serum CRP values on admission were 10.2 ± 8.8 (min 1.4; max 34.7) and 11.4 ± 11 mg/dL (min 0.4; max 42.6) respectively. Based on the correlation analysis, serum CRP was more strongly positively correlated with NLR (r = 0.543, P = 0.004), than total WBC (r = 0.454, P = 0.02). None of the biomarkers of inflammation measured or computed in the study (CRP, WBC, NLR) showed any correlation with either the days of hospitalization or the sepsis prognostic scores.
NLR shows a statistical significant correlation to the commonly used inflammatory markers CRP and total WBC in the small sample size of patients with CAP that we assessed. Although NLR is a simple, cheap and rapidly available measurement in the ED, future, larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm its possible value as a prognostic index in sepsis patients with CAP.
To evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) findings and correlate EEG findings with inflammatory biomarkers and the sepsis prognostic scores SOFA, SAPS II and APACHE II in patients who present in the Emergency Department with sepsis without clinical central nervous system involvement.
The study included seventeen patients (< 70 years old) with sepsis without central nervous system involvement presenting in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. All patients underwent neurologic examination and EEG analysis on admission to the hospital and were treated according to the international guideline protocols for sepsis.
Six of seventeen sepsis patients had mild or moderate EEG abnormalities. We did not find any significant correlation between EEG abnormalities and inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, WBC) or commonly used prognostic sepsis scores.
EEG could serve as a useful tool to identify brain alterations at an early stage in sepsis, before clinical sings of encephalopathy can be detected. However, the presence of EEG abnormalities does not correlate with sepsis severity as measured by the commonly used prognostic sepsis scores SOFA, APACHE II or SAPS II. Because this was a small single center observational study, large multi-center studies are warranted to confirm these findings.