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  • Author: Nikola Stojković x
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Histamine and Antihistamines / Histamin i antihistamini

Summary

In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Allergic immune response represents a complex network of cellular events involving numerous immune cells and mediators. It represents the interaction of innate and acquired immune response. The key role in the immune cascade is taken by histamine, a natural component of the body, which in the allergic inflammatory response is releasesd by the mast cells and basophils. The aim of this study was to highlight the role of histamine in allergic immunological events, their effect on Th1 and Th2 subpopulation of lymphocytes and the production of the corresponding cytokines, as well as the role of histamine blockers in the treatment of these conditions.

Histamine achieves its effect by binding to the four types of its receptors, which are widely distributed in the body. Histamine blockers block a numerous effects of histamine by binding to these receptors. As a highly selective second-generation antihistamine, cetirizine not only achieves its effects by binding to H1 receptors, but also attenuates numerous events during the inflammatory process. Knowledge of the effects of histamine blockers, including cetirizine, may lead to the selection of proper therapy for the treatment of allegic diseases.

Open access
Association of overexpressed MYC gene with altered PHACTR3 and E2F4 genes contributes to non-small cell lung carcinoma pathogenesis

Summary

Background

C-Myc is one of the major cellular oncogenes overexpressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Its deregulated expression is necessary but not sufficient for malignant transformation. We evaluated expression of MYC gene in NSCLC patients and its association with alterations in the genes previously identified to be related to NSCLC pathogenesis, PHACTR3 and E2F4.

Methods

We analyzed MYC gene expression by qRT-PCR in 30 NSCLC patients’ samples and paired normal lung tissue. MYC expression was further statistically evaluated in relation to histopathological parameters, PHACTR3 and E2F4 gene alterations and survival. Alterations in aforementioned genes were previously detected and identified based on AP-PCR profiles of paired normal and tumor DNA samples, selection of DNA bands with altered mobility in tumor samples and their characterization by the reamplification, cloning and sequencing.

Results

MYC expression was significantly increased in NSCLC samples and its overexpression significantly associated with squamous cell carcinoma subtype. Most importantly, MYC overexpression significantly coincided with mutations in PHACTR3 and E2F4 genes, in group of all patients and in squamous cell carcinoma subtype. Moreover, patients with jointly overexpressed MYC and altered PHACTR3 or E2F4 showed trend of shorter survival.

Conclusions

Overall, MYC is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC and it is associated with mutated PHACTR3 gene, as well as mutated E2F4 gene. These joint gene alterations could be considered as potential molecular markers of NSCLC and its specific subtypes.

Open access
Biochemical and clinical characteristics of patients with primary aldosteronism – single centre experience

Summary

Background

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is associated with increased prevalence of metabolic disorders (impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin resistance), but also with more frequent cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system complications.

Methods

Biochemical and clinical parameters were retrospectively analysed for 40 patients with PA caused by aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and compared to the control groups of 40 patients with nonfunctioning adrenal adenoma (NFA) and essential hypertension (HT), and 20 patients with adrenal Cushing syndrome (CS) or subclinical CS (SCS).

Results

Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were significantly higher in the PA group (p=0.004; p=0.002; p=0.001, respectively) than in NFA+HT group. PA patients had longer hypertension history (p=0.001) than patients with hypercorticism and all had hypokalaemia. This group showed the smallest mean tumour diameter (p<0.001). The metabolic syndrome was significantly less common in the PA group (37.5% vs. 70% in CS+SCS and 65% in NFA+HT group; p=0.015), although there was no significant difference in any of the analysed metabolic parameters between groups. PA group was found to have the most patients with glucose intolerance (81.8%), although the difference was not significant. The mean BMI for all three groups was in the overweight range. Patients with PA had higher microalbuminuria and a higher tendency for cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular events, but the difference was not significant.

Conclusions

Our results support the importance of the early recognition of primary aldosteronism on the bases of clinical presentation, as well as an increased screening intensity.

Open access