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  • Author: Nicoletta Varani x
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The contribution intends to present a framework as updated as possible on Azerbaijan, a country of which we are hearing more and more but not very well known and known to most, trying to provide an overview of what Azerbaijan is today, paying particular attention to the history of this interesting country in order to understand what it is today and even more what is the path taken for its future development. Therefore, some areas and aspects of the country have been identified, which will be, to follow, argued. Starting from the entirely geographical aspects to the more socio-cultural, then moving on to international relations and geopolitics and finally to the economic aspects.


Tourism remains a very vulnerable sector and sensitive to both internal and external impacts, such as economic and social crises, natural disasters, epidemics and diseases, national and international conflicts. Among these, the most alarming threat in the 21st century remains terrorism. In this sense, this paper aims to study the effects of the increasingly frequent terrorist attacks by the extremist factions of Al-Qaeda and ISIL on the tourism industry in the Mediterranean Region. The contribution, after having discussed in general the tourism market in the Mediterranean Region, intends to highlight the impacts and repercussions of the terrorist attacks on tourism, presenting the example of Egypt and one of its best-known tourist destinations, Sharm el-Sheikh. In this sense, it is shown how, in a few years, the political instability of the country and the attacks of 2005 and 2016 have significantly reduced the influx of tourists, transforming it from one of the most visited destinations in the world in a place of increasing abandonment.


The mobility of people is an important theme of geographical research because immigrant currents profoundly transform regional models, mainly urban areas, configuring themselves as a factor of social destabilization, as they change the composition of the population, triggering processes of mutual cultural contamination that are projected on the territory, differentiating it from its geographical surroundings. The contribution, starting from a look at international migration, intends to analyze different aspects related to the phenomenon of mobility such as globalization, sustainability and the role of International Cooperation in the light of the objectives of Agenda 2030 for sustainable development, challenges that concern not only the present, but especially the future.


Planetary interdependence makes the task of states and international organizations to guarantee security inside and outside national borders ever more urgent. The tendency is to widen the space from national to international and to conceive of security as multidimensional for the satisfaction of human needs, assumed as priority needs with respect to those of the States. The old concept of national security must today confront the new concept of human security cultivated within the United Nations, which places the fundamental rights of the individual and of people at the centre of attention and lays the foundations for overcoming the traditional politics of power.

The concept of human security emphasises the security of the individual and his protection from political violence, war and arbitrariness. It takes account of the strong correlation between peace policy, human rights policy, migration policy and humanitarian policy.

The contribution provides, through a series of social indicators such as the Global Peace Index (GPI), Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the World International Security and Policy Index (WISPI), a framework on risk, security, human rights violations in the African continent and examines some significant case studies related to sub-Saharan Africa.


The phenomenon of migration has always existed during the history of man since the beginning of time, just think of the history of the diaspora of the Jewish people until the great migrations of the nineteenth century which involved several European peoples, including Italians, Germans, Poles, and non-Europeans, such as the Japanese, heading to North or South America.

This article, using official sources provided by IOM, UNHCR and other accredited international statistical sources, aims to offer a critical reflection about the motivations, routes and paths of migrants outside and inside Africa, showing that only a small part of them reach Europe.

In fact, the first attractive centre for internal migration is Côte d’Ivoire, one of the countries, together with Nigeria, which is the driving force behind the sparsely populated economy of West Africa, rich in agricultural raw materials (starting with cocoa and coffee).

Finally, particular attention is given to the Italian case because is the geographical area most affected by the landings of migrants. In fact, hostility towards migrants in Italy at the end of last year was on the increase: one Italian in two said he considered immigrants a danger and was afraid of it.