Icing - a risk factor in aviation. Case study: The plane crash in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) on 20.01.2014. Icing is a potentially harmful weather phenomenon for flight safety. Icing, irrespective of its forms, has a negative impact on all aviation activities since it severely impedes the aerodynamic properties of an aircraft, sometimes to such an extent that flying and landing may become impossible. Icing is a serious weather threat to aviation and may ultimately lead to deadly events. One such unfortunate event took place in the Western (Apuseni) Mountains on the 20.01.2014, when an aircraft which was transporting a medical team on a humanitarian mission, simply crashed down in the area of the Western (Apuseni) Mountains, at around 4:00 pm local time. The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages or official elements and information from that very day. All these materials show that the flight route and the airdrome of destination were under the influence of a front which accounted for very poor meteorological conditions. On such bad weather, the flight was practically doomed to failure since low snow and sleet-bearing clouds were hanging down over the mountaintops. Flying straight through these clouds made any landmarks impossible to be seen and, furthermore, lack of orientation created false perceptions which led to fatal misjudgements and errors.
The present paper investigates on the spatial and temporal variability of maximum and minimum air-temperatures in Romania and their connection to the European climate variability. The European climate variability is expressed by large scale parameters, which are roughly represented by the geopotential height at 500 hPa (H500) and air temperature at 850 hPa (T850). The Romanian data are represented by the time series at 22 weather stations, evenly distributed over the entire country’s territory. The period that was taken into account was 1961-2010, for the summer and winter seasons. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) has been used, in order to analyze the connection between the temperature variability in Romania and the same variability at a larger scale, by taking into consideration the atmosphere circulation. The time series associated to the first two EOF patterns of local temperatures and large-scale anomalies were considered with regard to trends and shifts in their mean values. The non- Mann-Kendall and Pettitt parametric tests were used in this respect. The results showed a strong correlation between T850 parameter and minimum and maximum air temperatures in Romania. Also, the ample variance expressed by the first EOF configurations suggests a connection between local and large scale climate variability.
Pollutants in large amounts may not only cause severe health problems and damage crops, but may also represent one of the main causes of global warming. Air quality numerical models are very useful tools in forecasting air pollutants transport and spread. Consequently, this paper analyzes the regional concentration of PM10 (a geographical domain representative of Romania’s territory), by using the numerical air quality forecasting model: WRF-CHEM version 3.5. The respective model has been applied on a Romania-centered upon geographical area, for both the two months representative of the warm and cold seasons (June and January 2013, respectively), at a spatial resolution of 10 km, with a 24 hours’ anticipation. For the WRF-CHEM chemistry module to be initiated, values of PM10 emissions were extracted from the TNO (Nederlandse Organisatie voor toegepast natuurwetenschappelijk onderzoek, www.tno.nl) database for 2009. The meteorological parameters required by the weather forecast model were obtained from the numerical output of the ECMWF (www.ecmwf.int) global model. All these meteorological parameters are very important for air quality simulations, especially wind profiles, which are very important assessment tools since they determine where pollutants are transported, and air-temperature as it may largely influence the speed of chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The vertical diffusion is strongly linked to the height of the mixing layer and influences the exchange between the ground layers and the open troposphere. In order to highlight the quality of the numerical forecasts for PM10 from the WRF-CHEM model, the results obtained were compared to the measurements obtained through gravimetric methods (average daily values of PM10). Hence, specific measurements were provided by the National Environmental Protection Agency (ANPM).
Air pollution is one of the major problems of mankind, transport of pollutants extending far beyond the borders of the countries where they were produced, causing unpredictable, direct and indirect changes of the environment. The main tool for the study of this phenomenon consists of mathematical modeling of complex physical and chemical phenomena involved. In practice, air emissions are estimated on basis of measurements taken from selected sources being representative of the major categories and types. At national level, the Air Quality Evaluation Center (CECA) provides regular reports to the European Environment Agency (EEA) or the European Commission as requirements of Romania’s lawful duties in air quality domain. The registry of emissions TNO/ MACC (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research/ Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) contains emissions inventories which have been homogenized and checked in advance and obtained from emissions officially reported at sectoral level for each country. In this study, for the analysis of the weather numerical dispersion and transport of pollutants, it has been used the numerical air quality model WRF-CHEM version 3.5, centered over Romania, at the spatial resolution of 10 km, using as input data the TNO emission database for 2009. By interpolating values from the regular grid of the TNO database with the WRF-CHEM model 3.5 grid, monthly average values were obtained for each day of the week, for any parameter considered. Preliminary results obtained for different pollutants (for example: PM10, O3) confirm the need to validate these results by implementing and integrating air quality forecasting model by assimilating different types of measurements (data model, gravimetric data observations, etc.).
The metadata are defined as the informations behind the data. The purpose of the metadata in meteorological activity is to represent where, when, how and by whom meteorological data has been obtained, colected and recorded. Ideally, a comprehensive metadata base should contain records of all changes that have occured throughout the entire period in which the meteorological station has functioned, the so called „station history”. This paper renders the preliminary results of the analysed wind parameter values (percentages of wind calm and wind frequency) for the time period between 1961 and 2015 at Iași meteorological station. The data were analysed based on various historical metadata information (e.g. the emergence of new construction(s) around the station, relocation of the station, changes in the equipment used to measure the wind etc.), information that may influence the wind parameters measured at Iași weather station.
The increasing frequency and intensity of climate and weather extremes due to ongoing climate changes can cause major property and infrastructure damage. Mainly representing unforeseen and unavoidable hazards, some environmental and business laws broadly assimilate them as force majeure situations, excepting parties affected by their impact from prior commitments. The present study, debating on the way law courts should broadly address the force majeure clause when objective and accurate evidence is being provided, describes the terms of a legal dispute between the owners of two neighboring buildings which have seriously been damaged by a severe thunderstorm developing over the Bucharest-Otopeni town area, on the 22nd July 2014. Consistent meteorological evidence (weather reports and forecasts, aerological diagrams, radar and satellite images, air-pressure distribution maps, synoptic messages etc.) have been presented to the law court to document, in an unbiased manner, on the extraordinary, external, unforeseen and unavoidable weather event representing the cause of a civil legal dispute. The extent to which the law court may take all these into consideration under the provisions of the force majeure clause is still to be explored.
Introduction. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness not solely explained by abnormal loading conditions, with great heterogeneity regarding clinical expression and prognosis. The aim of the present study was to collect data on HCM patients from different centres across the country, in order to assess the general characteristics and therapeutic choices in this population.
Methods. Between December 2014 and April 2017, 210 patients from 11 Romanian Cardiology centres were enrolled in the National Registry of HCM. All patients had to fulfil the diagnosis criteria for HCM according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Clinical, electrocardiographic, imaging and therapeutic characteristics were included in a predesigned online file.
Results. Median age at enrolment was 55 ± 15 years with male predominance (60%). 43.6% of the patients had obstructive HCM, 50% non-obstructive HCM, while 6.4% had an apical pattern. Maximal wall thickness was 20.3 ± 4.8 mm (limits 15-37 mm) while LV ejection fraction was 60 ± 8%. Heart failure symptoms dominated the clinical picture, mainly NYHA functional class II (51.4%). Most frequent arrhythmias were atrial fibrillation (28.1%) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (19.9%). Mean sudden cardiac death risk score (SCD-RS) was 3.0 ± 2.3%, with 10.4% of the patients with high risk of SCD. However, only 5.7% received an ICD. Patients were mainly treated with beta-blockers (72.9%), diuretics (28.1%) and oral anticoagulants (28.6%). Invasive treatment of LVOT obstruction was performed in a small number of patients: 22 received myomectomy and 13 septal ablation. Cardiac magnetic resonance was reported in only 14 patients (6.6%).
Conclusions. The Romanian registry of HCM illustrates patient characteristics at a national level as well as the gaps in management which need improvement – accessibility to high-end diagnostic tests and invasive methods of treatment.