Background:Clostridium difficile (CD) is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infections, having as main manifestation diarrhea and life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Surgery may be necessary in up to 80% of patients due to the frequent complications associated with this condition. The mortality rate of this devastating disease could reach 50% even after proper treatment.
Case report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female who was admitted with clinical signs of an odontal inflammatory process. After repeated surgical treatments and antibiotic therapy, she presented acute abdominal pain on the 14th postoperative day. The explorative laparotomy was negative. Clostridium difficile was isolated from her stool, and she was transferred to the Department of Infectious Diseases. After a few days without any favorable clinical outcome, she was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), where she developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite the immediate surgical intervention and ICU care, she died within 15 days after admission.
Conclusions: CD infection is considered a complication of antibiotic treatment, having as main cause the combination of fluoroquinolones with antisecretory drugs. In the first phase, the changes of the colon can be minimal with the manifestation of a false acute surgical abdomen, but toxic colon can develop in evolution, leading to multi-system organ failure and death.
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a rare but life-threatening condition that develops in the third trimester of pregnancy. AFLP shares similar clinical features with other more common pregnancy-associated conditions. However, early correct diagnosis is important for maternal and fetal survival. Once the diagnosis has been established, immediate delivery and maternal intensive support should be undertaken. Both parents and the infant should be tested for deficiencies of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, especially for long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency, as many cases of AFLP are related to disruption of this physiological enzymatic pathway.
Background: Lymph node status in gastric cancer is known as an independent prognostic factor that guides the surgical and oncological treatment and independently influences long-term survival. Several studies suggest that the lymph node ratio has a greater importance in survival than the number of metastatic lymph nodes.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and morphological factors that can influence the survival of gastric cancer patients, with an emphasis on nodal status and the lymph node ratio.
Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective study in which 303 patients with gastric cancer admitted to the Department of Surgery of the Mureș County Hospital between 2008 and 2018 were screened for study enrolment. Data were obtained from the records of the department and from the histopathological reports. The examined variables included: age, gender, tumor localization, T stage, histological type, grade of differentiation, surgical procedure, lympho-vascular invasion, excised lymph nodes, metastatic lymph nodes, lymph node ratio. After screening, the study included a total number of 100 patients, for which follow-up data was available.
Results: The mean age of the study population was 66.43 ± 10 years, and 71% were males. The average survival period was 21.42 months. Statistical analysis showed that the localization of the tumor (p = 0.021), vascular invasion (p ---lt---0.001), T (p = 0.004) and N (p ---lt---0.001) stages, type of surgery (partial gastrectomy 59% vs. total gastrectomy 41%, p = 0.005), as well as the lymph node ratio (p ---lt---0.001) were prognostic factors for survival in patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgical therapy.
Conclusions: The survival of gastric cancer patients is significantly influenced by tumor localization, T stage, vascular invasion, type of surgery, N stage and the lymph node ratio based on univariate analysis. Also, the lymph node ratio proved to be an independent prognostic factor for survival.
Facial dysmorphism is a common diagnosis which represents a broad spectrum of aetiologies with different outcomes spreading from normal outcome to foetal demise or new-borns with multiple malformations. Prenatal diagnosis can be difficult, making counselling a challenging task even in experienced hands. This paper aims to present an unusual case of facial dysmorphism (Binder phenotype) which resulted in a normal pregnancy. However, throughout the pregnancy, future parents experienced excruciating anxiety, which required multiple prenatal counselling appointments. We believe that in case of a Binder phenotype, genetic testing, multiple scanning appointments and extensive discussion with future parents are vital in the prevention of an unneeded ending of a pregnancy.
Several occupational carcinogens (arsenic, cadmium) and industries (rubber production) have been associated with prostate cancer risk but most of the data are from studies conducted on screened populations. Here we explored this association in Romanian men, a population with low PSA screening test coverage. We have analyzed 468 prostate cancer cases pathologically confirmed and 495 non-cancer hospital controls, recruited in the ROMCAN project. Personal information, including occupational activity, was collected through interview. Two experts classified jobs and activities into 15 economic sectors with similar patterns of exposure. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between ever employed in each economic sector and prostate cancer risk. We observed a higher non adjusted risk for employment in electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply activities (OR=3.95, p=0.029), manufacturing–light industry (OR=1.88, p=0.039), financial, insurance and gambling (OR=1.44, p=0.046) and a lower risk for employment in construction industry (OR=0.62, p=0.010). After adjusting for potential confounders, only the low risk in construction workers was maintained (OR=0.55, p=0.004). Our study provides some evidence on the role of occupational factors on the prostate cancer risk but further assessments are needed. Healthy lifestyle promotion and prevention should be reinforced at workplaces.