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Nevena Eremić and Mirjana Đerić

Evaluation of Coronary Risk Score Applications in 10-Year Coronary Heart Risk Estimation

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease with risk factors that have multiple effects. In the identification and treatment of asymptomatic individuals at high risk for developing coronary heart disease (CHD) different risk scoring schemes are used in everyday routine. The aim of this study was to compare SCORE recommended for our country with two other most frequently used risk schemes for 10-year CHD risk evaluation: Framingham and PROCAM as well as their modifications. From 220 examined subjects of both sexes, who were treated mainly for lipid metabolism disorder at the Dispensary for Atherosclerosis Prevention, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, 110 subjects were included in our study and agreed to a one-year follow-up. At first check-up, 15% had low risk according to Framingham Weibull and 78% according to PROCAM, intermediate 12% according to PROCAM NS up to 45% according to Framingham Weibull, and high 8% according to PROCAM up to 40% according to Framingham Weibull. After a one-year treatment 30% were in the low risk category according to Framingham Weibull and 88% according to PROCAM. Intermediate from 10% according to PROCAM to 36% according to Framingham Weibull, and high from 2% according to PROCAM to 25% according to Framingham Weibull. There is a significantly lower percentage of high risk individuals and a higher percentage of low risk individuals after one year of lipid disorder treatment.

Open access

Nevena Eremić, Mirjana Đerić and Ljiljana Hadnađev

Diagnostic Accuracy of IGA Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Testing in Celiac Disease

Contemporary guidelines for the first-line diagnosis of celiac disease recommend determination of IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies or IgA antiendomysial antibodies, as well as total serum IgA antibodies. The aim of our study was to assess the validity and clinical significance of serological testing for IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease, and to investigate the presence of malabsorption symptoms in celiac patients. IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody testing was performed in 50 subjects with clinically suspected celiac disease (21 men and 29 women). All subjects underwent endoscopy with small intestine biopsy. Celiac disease was confirmed by histopathological findings in four subjects, whereas the IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase test was positive in three subjects. The IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase test showed sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100%. There were significant differences between men with biopsy-confirmed and excluded celiac disease in the erythrocyte parameters MCV (96.5±7.7 vs. 78.6 ±11.3; p<0.05), MCH (36.9±4.6 vs. 25.9±4.9; p<0.01), and MCHC (382.5±16.3 vs. 326.9±19.1; p<0.005), as well as in the levels of total protein (47.5 ±16.3 vs. 68.3 ± 7.6; p<0.01) and albumins (24.6±9.5 vs. 42.1 ± 6.9; p<0.01). In addition, HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in men with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease (0.42.±0.12 vs. 0.90±0.30; p<0.05). Our results show a high correlation between IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase testing and endoscopy with biopsy as the gold diagnostic standard.

Open access

Sunčica Kojić-Damjanov, Mirjana Đerić, Nevena Eremić and Velibor Čabarkapa

The Influence of Chronic Helicobacter Pylori Infection on some Serum Lipid Profile Parameters, Apolipoproteins A-I and B and Lp(a) Lipoprotein

Data on proatherogenic lipid profile alterations due to chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection are contradictory. Aim of this study was to examine the differences in some lipid parameters between 55 subjects of both gender with a chronic HP infection (IgG>50 U/mL and IgA <20 U/mL) and 55 gender matched HP seronegative subjects (IgG and IgA <20 U/mL). Total cholesterol (TC) (p<0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p<0.02), non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo) B (p<0.001), Lp(a) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) serum levels were higher in HP seropositive than in seronegative subjects, while there were almost no differences in apo A-I. In HP seropositive subjects, the frequency of pathological TC (p<0.001), TG (p<0.05), LDL-C (p<0.01), non-HDL-C (p<0.01), apo B (p<0.02) and Lp(a) serum levels was higher compared to seronegative. Serum HP IgG titers correlated negatively with TC, LDL-C (p<0.05), non-HDL-C, apo B and Lp(a) levels, and positively with TG, HDL-C and apo A-I levels. Results are similar for both genders. Our results confirm the hypothesis that a chronic HP infection could modify the lipid profile in a proatherogenic way.

Open access

Mirjana Đerić, Sunčica Kojić-Damjanov, Velibor Čabarkapa and Nevena Eremić

Biochemical Markers of Atherosclerosis

This paper is a brief review of some lipid parameters and serum markers of inflammation in a view of their predictive relevance for the atherosclerotic disease. A discourse on the importance of measuring different lipids and lipoproteins, concentration of LDL particles and apolipoprotein levels is still underway. Also, the recommendations for apolipoprotein (a), phenotypization and other lipid markers have not yet been established. In recent years the recommendations imply simultaneous measuring of multiple markers and calculating the lipid index values such as lipid tetrad index (LTI), lipid pentad index (LPI) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Several circulating markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, serum fibrinogen and elevated leukocyte number, are consistently associated with atherosclerosis. In spite of a lack of evidence on measuring the C-reactive protein in a wide population, the guidelines for its application in diagnostics and therapy of coronary heart disease were developed. Some proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and markers of leukocyte activation are promising markers, requiring, however, more detailed prospective evaluation. The question to be elucidated is if these inflammatory markers are directly involved in the pathogenic process.

Open access

Velibor Čabarkapa, Mirjana Đerić, Zoran Stošić, Vladimir Sakač, Sunčica Kojić-Damjanov and Nevena Eremić

Lipoprotein(a) in Chronic Renal Failure

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in patients with chronic renal failure. Among the parameters contributing to cardiovascular disease development is the elevated serum concentration of lipoprotein(a) diagnosed in these patients, especially in the terminal stage of CRF. However, an elevated concentration of lipoprotein(a) could influence the renal failure progression. The objective of this study is to examine the lipoprotein(a) serum levels in chronic renal failure, and to establish the relation between the stage of renal function preservation and the level of this lipoprotein. In this study 127 subjects were included, divided into three groups. The first group contained 42 subjects (15 females and 27 males) in different CRF stages, the second group contained 32 subjects (7 females and 25 males) on a chronic hemodialysis program, and the control group contained 53 subjects (22 females and 31 males) with regular renal function. The results obtained point to significantly higher frequency of hyper-Lp(a) lipoproteinaemia in dialysed patients compared to the control group, as well as significantly higher Lp(a) values in both groups of patients compared to the control group. It can be concluded that for the risk assessment of premature atherosclerotic changes, but also renal failure progression in patients with CRF, determination of the Lp(a) serum concentration is recommendable.

Open access

Velibor Čabarkapa, Mirjana Đerić, Zoran Stošić, Vladimir Sakač, Sofija Davidović and Nevena Eremić

Summary

Background: One of the leading causes of terminal renal failure is diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between homocysteine levels and the biomarkers of renal function, inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as the incidence of macrovascular complications in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Methods: Sixty-four patients with diabetic nephropathy were included in this study. They were divided according to their homocysteine levels into two groups: hyperhomocysteinemic (HHcy, n=47) and normohomocysteinemic patients (NHCy, n=17). The re sults were compared to a control group (n=20) with normal renal function and without diabetes. Besides homocysteine, cystatine C, creatinine, urea, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, lipid status parameters, apolipoprotein A-I and B, lipo protein (a), CRP, fibrinogen, oxidative LDL were determined using appropriate methods. The incidence of macro vascular diabetic complications was also determined.

Results: The results indicate that the level of renal dysfunction is greater in HHcy than in NHcy patients (p<0.05). In HHcy patients levels of oxLDL were also higher compared to NHcy patients (119.3±140.4 vs. 71.4±50.8 ng/mL, disp< 0.05) as well as fibrinogen levels (4.3±1.3 vs. 3.7±0.8 g/L, p<0.05). The in cidence of macrovascular complications is more frequent in HHcy than in NHcy patients (55.3. vs. 35.3 %, p>0.05), and in patients with macroalbuminuria compared to patients with microalbuminuria (65% vs. 39%, p<0.05).

Conclusions: It can be concluded that HHcy is significantly present in patients with diabetic nephropathy, especially if there is greater reduction of renal function. Besides that, significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory (fibrinogen) and oxidative stress (oxLDL) markers were present in HHcy patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to NHcy patients.Therefore in diabetic nephropathy patients it is useful to regularly monitor the levels of homocysteine, as well as inflammatory and markers of oxidative stress.