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Nenad Živanović

Summary

The history of the development of mankind is filled with examples which confirm that not everything has failed when everything has failed (R. P. Nogo). And actually, in every sphere of social life we can find people, who in the given temporal and social circumstances, have brought about a kind of rebirth and have helped in the awakening of new dreams and new desires to move forward. These individuals, whose souls have borne all the wounds of their people (and the profession they once claimed as their own), have inspired hope and a new energy (both) to those who had already given up and abandoned themselves to a quiet self-destruction.

These individuals, beacons of light of a particular time, with their words and deeds were an example of those who would not acquiesce to the existing order, but did not know how to move on. These beacons of light, raised high by Love, went forward and through their work mapped out the roads of further development and progress.

One such man, who has shed his light and lit up our physical education, is certainly Milivoje Matić.

Open access

Nenad Živanović and Zoran Milošević

Abstract

Physical culture with the man in its centre has always been an integral part of social events and troubles in various times and ages. Regardless the need to adjust its theory and practice to the given requirements and social circumstances of the time it has always been stretched between rationalism and theanthropos‐centrism. Rationalism and its right wing the Enlightenment had formed deep furrows in the area of physical culture, (too) since the age of Pythagoras, Epicurus, Plato and later Origen and the Neoplatonists and Descartes' ''I think, therefore I am''. The great Njegoš made a clear judgement of the general effects of Rationalism in his work The Ray of the Microcosm: ''You, Pythagoras and you, Epicurus, ... You have degraded a being a man.'' Indeed, only a glimpse at today's events and the development of sport and physical exercise is enough to prove his words to be true. On the other hand, thenathropos‐centrism with its theory and practice bring back hope that not all is lost, when everything is lost (R.P. Nogo). Theanthroposcentrism or, God‐man centrism as it can be called, approaches man with Love and belief that physical exercises is divine food for the human being. And that the food is given to him so that he can master the good as gifted from the Creator, to stand firm, get strong and divinized. Therefore, we can say that Rationalism and Thanthropos‐centrism are two views of and two approaches to man (even) in modern times. Behind the first one there is pridewhereas behind the second one there isLove. It is up to man himself to choose his way.

Open access

Nenad Živanović and Zoran Milošević

Summary

The history of the 19th century, filled with various social turning points and diverse ups and downs, points equally clearly to the need for organised physical exercising. Naturally, there are various reasons for that, but they could be all classified in three groups: a) as the need – for physical exercise, that salutary food for a human being; b) as politics – due to waging of both the wars of conquest and wars of defence; c) and as ideology – which can be noted in the need for emerging and development of ethnocentric development of physical exercising.

As always, people who could see farther and better than others thanks to their education, vision and emphasised patriotism were behind the idea of the need for organised physical exercising. Such people could be found in every part of turbulent Europe and each of them cared for and tried to help in preservation of their own people. In the territories populated by the Serbs we should mention the educators and patriots who raised high the torch of enlightenment working at the times full of challenges and difficult social circumstances. They were Vasa Pelagić, Djordje Natošević and Steva Todorović.

Open access

Nenad Zivanovic, Petar D. Pavlovic and Kristina M. Pantelic Babic

Summary

Serbian nation, especially from the time it “opened its orthodox eyes”, had famous people who wrote out its history. One of them, who along with others embed his whole life in prosperity of Serbian people, was Vasa Pelagić.

Born in troubled times of 19th century, he upgraded his high school and seminary knowledge abroad. But, the same as all those before and after him, he came back to Serbian nation, and he shared all of his gained knowledge with his people. In Moscow, where he spent two years, he attended lectures from: Russian literature, history, medicine and political economy. All this he implemented in his (not only) written work.

Educator, humanist, visionary, writer, and with one word – man who feels the pain of all Serbian wounds, Vasa Pelagić addressed significant attention also to our profession. With his work and care for proper development of young people (and by that not only physical development), he set the basis for its further growth. As equally useful he recommended both natural national gymnastics (work in garden, field), as also artificial gymnastics (different kind of physical exercise), and always asserted that gymnastics must be first among school subjects.

His ideas, which we can preceive primarily in theories of biocentrism and ethnocentrism, process a kind of his theoanthropocentric signet. By this signet he highlighted the fact that every human is a personality – one, unique and unrepeatable.

Open access

Petar D. Pavlović, Kristina M. Pantelić Babić, Nenad Živanović and Danilo Pavlović

Summary

Serbs who lived in America (more precisely, in the territory of United States) began to accept the very idea of Sokolism in mid-1907. One of first initiators of this idea was Danilo Radjevic, who worked and lived in Butte (Montana). In early 1909 began to appear the first initiatives for the establishment of Serbian Soko societies (SSS) in this territory. During 1909 two SSS were established, first one in Cincinnati (Ohio) and second one in Detroit (Michigan), and in the following year five more. During 1911 three societies were established, and in 1912 more than ten, among which Serbian Soko Society in Steubenville (Ohio). This paper deals with Serbian Sokol Society in Steubenville in order to determine when the Society was formed, who were its initiators, founders and members, which were its main activities and what kind of contribution the society had to development of Sokolism in the territory of America (United States).

Open access

Kristina M. Pantelić Babić, Petar D. Pavlović and Nenad Živanović

Summary

Sokol movement originated in Czech lands in second part of 19th century, and soon after it spread to all Slavic countries, as also to the ones were Slavic people lived. Beginnings of Sokolism in Bosnia and Herzegovina relate to Herzegovina, specifically to Foča and Risto Jeremić, when in 1893 the first initiatives for the establishment of a Serbian soko society in this city were created. It has been more than five years before the establishment of the first „Pobratimstvo“ („Brotherhood“, „Fraternity“), primarily anti-alcoholic, but also a society that had the characteristics of future Serbian soko societies. In 1910 this society was officially re-registered in the “Serbian Soko” in Foča. In the following years started a little more favorable period and other societies in the cities and other places of Herzegovina started to appear, which after a certain time entered also in Herzegovina village, which contributed to the development of the village, literacy of the people, but also many other useful things. These beginnings and the development of Sokolism on the territory of Herzegovina represent the main subject of this paper, with the aim to research and present when and how the first initiatives came to light, when the first societies were founded and who were the most important personalities. In addition, the authors want to show the significance of the Sokolism for the whole of Herzegovina and its population. During writing authors used historical method.

Open access

Petar D. Pavlović, Nenad Živanović, Kristina M. Pantelić Pantelić Babić and Danilo P. Pavlović

Summary

Serbs in America (SAD) started to accept the idea of Slavic and Serbian Sokolism at the beginning of 1909, when also started first ideas for formation of Serbian Sokol societies. During the second half of the same year two societies were formed, and during years to follow societies were formed in all other places of America (USA) inhabited with Serbs. During 1910 five societies were formed, among them also Serbian Sokol society in Gary (Indiana).

Goal of this paper is to research the work of Society and all his activities from its formation until end of June 1914. During writing authors used historical method.