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  • Author: Nemanja Zdravković x
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Evaluation of Toothbrush Contamination


Background/Aim: Toothbrushes are one of the main means of cleaning teeth and maintaining oral hygiene, but toothbrushes are also potential reservoir of microorganisms, including pathogens. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the oral health, oral hygiene awareness and assess the degree of contamination of toothbrushes among students attending Secondary Medical School.

Material and Methods: Sixty students (32 boys, 28 girls; mean age ≅ 15,7±2,1) attending highschool were randomly selected for this study. Each student included in the study filled out a questionnaire regarding his/her life habits and oral hygiene. Clinical examinations were initiated in order to determine the DMFT, as well as the CIP, CIT, CIA and CPITN indexes, based of which the assessment of oral health status was performed. One stack of fiber was collected from each toothbrush used by the participantes in the study, and than prepared for further microbiological sampling.

Results: Only 11% of the students had the awareness of potential sources of toothbrushes contamination. The average value of DMFT was 3,2 (%D = 22,5; %M = 4,96; %F = 72,5). A statistically significant difference in comparison of the CPITN index and subjects’ response to the professional plague removal in the last 12 months was identified (χ2 = 13,55; p= 0,033). Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Micrococcus species and Streptococcus salivarius were most commonly present microorganisms. In most cases, G-positive bacilli or cocci were isolated, while the presence of Candidae albicans was identified in four samples.

Conclusions: Raising the awareness of dental hygiene through the oral health education may improve better plaque control and subsequently the oral health. Handson training how to maintain the oral hygiene are not expensive and more over they are easy to be organized can be useful in oral heath promotion.

Open access
Tear Film Stability in Patients with Pseudexfoliation


Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age related disorder, characterized by abnormal fibrous fiber production and accumulation in different visceral organs as well as in the eye and periocular tissues. Hystological examination recorded the presence of the pseudoexfoliation in the conjunctiva, and they can disturb the accessory lacrimal gland and goblet cell function. This can explain tear film instability in patients with pseudoexfoliations. In our study, we examined the tear film stability in patients with and without pseudoexfoliation, using Schirmer test and tear break up time test. Our results indicated that patients with pseudoexfoliation had lower values of Schirmer and tear break up time tests than patients without it. Pseudoexfoliation is the main reason for the instability of the tear film, because of its negative impact on the conjucntival goblet cells. In conclusion, ophthalmologists must have these data on their mind in the process of the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma treatment and controlling.

Open access
Systemic Manifestations of Pseudoexfoliation


Objective: Th e aim of our study was to establish a correlation between pseudoexfoliation and its systemic manifestation.

Findings: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an agerelated systemic disorder that leads to the overproduction and accumulation of the pseudoexfoliated materials in the visceral organs and in the eye. Many vascular diseases are closely related with pseudoexfoliation manifestations. Our results indicated that there were no statistically significant diff erences (p>0.05) among patients regarding the presence of hypertension in all groups: PEX glaucoma - 45% (9 patients); PEX syndrome- 40% (8 patients); and control groups- 35% (7 patients). Ischemic heart disease was statistically significant present in the sPEX syndrome- 20% (5 patients) and PEX glaucoma- 25% (5 patients) patient groupss, in comparison with those of the control group-10%, (p<0.05). Aortic aneurism was statistically significant present in patients with PEX (syndrome-5% or glaucoma-15%), compared to those in the control group, which included no patients with aneurisms, (p<0.05). Our results indicated that a statistically significant number of patients with aneurism were in the group of patients who developed PEX glaucoma (p<0.05). Cerebrovascular diseases were detected in all groups of patients, but a significant decrease in this metric was noted in the control group- 5% (2 patients), compared with patients with PEX syndrome- 15% and PEX glaucoma-25%, (p<0.05). Hearing loss, as a concomitant sign of PEX manifestation, was recorded in all patients, but in the group with PEX (syndrome-55% or glaucoma-75%), these results showed a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in comparison with those of patients in the control group (10%). Among the patients with PEX (syndrome and glaucoma), there were no statistically significant diff erences in the selected categories of systemic manifestations (p<0.05). Th is result indicates that the main risk for systemic manifestation is the presence of PEX and that other ocular and vascular complications are, in fact, consequences of PEX.

Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation is strongly related to systemic vascular disturbances. A detailed examination of patients with PEX by specialists in internal disease or by neurologists should be performed. Such recommended examinations can be helpful in the prevention of diff erent vascular diseasess among patients with PEX, especially atthose in the early stages.

Open access
Antihelminic Activity of Carvacrol, Thymol, Cinnamaldehyde and P-Cymen Against the Free-Living Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and Rat Pinworm Syphacia muris


In the present study we tested the dose andh time dependence of the antinematodal effects of carvacrol and tyhmol on Caenorabditis elegans, and the efficacy of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and cinnamaldehyde,which were administrated in the drinking water of rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. The control treatment of the infected rats was carried out with piperazine. Thymol caused a dose and time-dependent mortality in adult C. elegans. The value of the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) of thymol was 117.9nM after 24h and 62.89 nM after 48h of exposure. Carvacrol exhibited a higher antinematodal efficiency than thymol. The LC50 of carvacrol, after 24 hours of exposure, was 53.03 nM, while after 48 hours it was 33.83 nM. On the other hand, piperazine showed an extremely high efficacy against S. muris infection in rats. Piperazine, at a dose of 625 mg/kg bw, administered in drinking water continuously for 10 days, eliminates the infection completely. However, none of the investigated active ingredients of essential oils were effective against S. muris. The reason for the lack of efficiency may be due to their pharmacokinetic properties. A relatively low amount of, orally administered, active ingredients of essential oils reaches the distal segments of the gastrointestinal tract, where S. muris inhabits the gut (colon and cecum). The obtained results, on C. elegans, indicate a clear dose and time-dependent antinematodal effect of thymol and carvacrol. However, for clinical application, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of microencapsulated formulations with a controlled release of active ingredients of essential oils in certain parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

Open access