Isaac Adelakun Gbiri and Nathaniel Olugbade Adeoye
Forest Reserves in Southwestern Nigeria have been threatened by urbanization and anthropogenic activities and the rate of deforestation is not known. This study examined the vegetation characteristics of Akure Forest Reserve using optical remote sensing data. It also assessed the changing pattern in the forest reserve between 1986 and 2017. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver was used to capture the location of the prominent settlements that surrounded the Forest Reserve in order to evaluate their effects on the forest. Landsat TM 1986, Landsat ETM+ 2002 and Landsat OLI_TIRS 2017 with 30m resolution were classified to assess the spatio-temporal changing pattern of the forest reserve. The results showed different composition of vegetation, which include undisturbed forest, secondary regrowth and farmlands. The study further revealed that in 1986, 2002 and 2017, undisturbed forest constituted 63.3%, 32.4% and 32.1% of the entire land area respectively, while secondary regrowth occupied 8.3% in 1986, 9.5% in 2002 and 15.6% in 2017. The farmlands had erratic growth between 1986 and 2017. It was 16.9% in 1986, 22.1% in 2002 and 17.5% in 2017. The bare ground exhibited inconsistency in the coverage. In 1986 the areal extent was 11.5%, when it increased to 36% in 2002 and decreased to 31.9% in 2017. In conclusion, the study revealed the extent of forest depletion at Akure Forest Reserve and it is therefore important that the residents, the government and the researchers show major concern about some of the critical factors to human beings that are responsible for forest depletion.
Ayansina Ayanlade, Nathaniel Olugbade Adeoye and Oyekanmi Babatimehin
This study develops an integrated innovation for malaria early warning systems (MEWS), based on vulnerability monitoring, seasonal climate variability data, and epidemiologic surveillance. The main aim of the study is to examine the relationship between intra-annual climate variability and malaria transmission in Nigeria. For this study, climatic conditions considered suitable for the development of the malaria parasite and its transmission through the mosquito stage of its life cycle are temperatures within the range from 18°C to 32°C. Below 18°C the parasite development decreases significantly, while above 32°C the survival of the mosquito is compromised. Relative humidity greater than 60% is also considered a requirement for the mosquito to survive long enough for the parasite to develop sufficiently to be transmitted to its human host stage. The research findings show that seasonality of climate greatly influences the seasonality of malaria transmission. Specifically, rainfall plays an important role in the distribution and maintenance of breeding sites for the mosquito vector. Rainfall and surface water is required for the egg laying and larval stages of the mosquito life cycle and monthly rainfall above 80 mm is considered a requirement. Also, it is temperature that regulates the development rate of both the mosquito larvae and the malaria parasite (Plasmodium species) within the mosquito host. Relative humidity and temperature play an important role in the survival and longevity of the mosquito vector. This study is in conformity with the findings of the IPCC (2001) that malaria is caused by four distinct species of the Plasmodium parasite, transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, which are most abundant in tropical/subtropical regions, although they are also found in limited numbers in temperate climates.