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Natalia Przybylska


The aim of this article is to analyse and describe a new trend in obtaining information and solving problems, which is crowdsourcing. Contemporary enterprises face enormous challenges, which are connected with omnipresent changes occurring in the functioning of societies and economies all over the world. Crowdsourcing is a very complex and constantly evolving phenomenon. It is an open subject of multiple discussions in which, due to its multiple factors and variable applications, it is being differently defined. Growing usage of this phenomenon prompts scientists for undertaking research and analysis of this issue as it is strictly connected with dynamically changing attitudes of, not only, entrepreneurs, but also their surroundings. The prime driving force behind undertaking this subject is a fast development of technology, Web 2.0, or globalisation. The mechanism of crowdsourcing’s functioning has been known for ages; however, it was named as a tool for modern enterprises 10 years ago. During that short period of time crowdsourcing has gained the acceptance of a number of people all over the world. The challenge for the present research is, as well, to indicate advantages and underline the essence of proper managing of crowdsourcing in enterprises, what involves a number of aspects. The described solution is still gaining more and more proponents; however, planned inappropriately, may cause completely reversible effect than the desired one. In this article, descriptions of worldwide ventures, which apply crowdsourcing, in Poland as well, and the results of the newest research on the phenomenon were included.

Open access

N. Ziółkowska, B. Lewczuk and B. Przybylska-Gornowicz


Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants.

The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2-receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion.

NPY (0.1 – 10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive.

The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.