The aim of the research was to estimate changes in soil properties caused by intensive recreation and tourism in protected areas within the urban borders of Rzeszów (south-east Poland). The research was conducted on two objects: (1) on protected areas of the Lisia Góra Nature Reserve and (2) along the Wisłok Valley. The difference in anthropopressure between the areas was taken into consideration. Soil penetration resistance and moisture were analysed in the spring and autumn period. Soil texture, pH, total carbon, and electrical conductivity (EC) in a 1:10 soil:water suspension were measured in soil material collected in spring. The ion content (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) was measured in the same suspension with an ion chromatograph. There were significant correlations (determined by the Pearson coefficient) between soil acidity, EC, total exchangeable bases, ions of calcium and magnesium, and soil penetration resistance. A significant difference was found in soil penetration resistance between objects (higher in the Wisłok Valley area) and between the distances from the border of the intensively managed area (a decrease as the distance increased). The Z coefficient (the ratio of sodium ions, the sum of calcium and magnesium ions) was significantly lower for the the Lisia Góra Nature Reserve sites.
Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on the morphology of the aorta and liver of rabbits fed high fat diet with addition of oxidised (ORO) and non-oxidised rapeseed oil (N-ORO).
Material and Methods: The study was conducted on male chinchilla rabbits divided into six groups. The control group (C) was fed a breeding standard diet (BSD), group I received BSD with the addition of ALA in the dose of 10 mg/kg b.w., groups II and III received BSD enriched with 10% addition of N-ORO or ORO, whereas rabbits from groups IV and V received BSD with 10% addition of N-ORO or ORO and ALA.
Results: Addition of ORO caused necrosis and steatosis of hepatocytes, as well as atherosclerotic plaques of various intensification in the aorta. In the liver of rabbits from group II (N-ORO) infiltrations of mononuclear cells was observed in the area of liver triads and between liver lobules. The beneficial influence of ALA was demonstrated in rabbits fed a diet containing N-ORO or ORO. In case of ORO, the activity of ALA was not fully effective.
Conclusion: Diet supplementation with ALA counteracts the changes generated in the liver and aorta under increased exposure to higher fat content in diet, in particular thermally treated fats.