Olive leaf extract is characterized by a high content of polyphenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives), which is associated with its therapeutic properties. The objective of the present research was to evaluate the antifungal activity of olive leaf extract against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and C. dubliniensis CBS 7987 strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extract were determined by several in vitro assays. The extract showed a concentration depended effect on the viability of C. albicans with MIC value of 46.875 mg mL-1 and C. dubliniensis with MIC value 62.5 mg mL-1. Most sensitive methods for testing the antifungal effect of the extracts were the trypan blue exclusion method and fluorescent dye exclusion method while MIC could not be determined by the method according to the EUCAST recommendation suggesting that herbal preparations contain compounds that may interfere with this susceptibility testing. The fluorescent dye exclusion method was also used for the assessment of morphological changes in the nuclei of treated cells. According to the obtained results, olive leaf extract is less effective against the tested strains than hydroxytyrosol, an olive plant constituent tested in our previous study.
This study investigates antioxidant capacity and protective effects of phenolic compounds oleuropein (OLP) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), present in olive oil and olive leaves, against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Antioxidant potency was determined using the measurement of radical-scavenging activity (ABTS∙+ assay), ferric reducing power (FRAP assay) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC assay). Both substances were found to be potent antioxidant agents due to their free radical-scavenging activities. Antigenotoxic effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol against H2O2-induced damage in human lymphocytes were evaluated in vitro by alkaline comet assay. At tested concentrations (1, 5, 10 µmol L−1), oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol did not induce a significant increase of primary DNA damage in comparison with the negative control. Pretreatment of human lymphocytes with each of the substances for 120 min produced a dose-dependent reduction of primary DNA damage in the tested cell type. Hydroxytyrosol showed a better protective effect against H2O2-induced DNA breaks than oleuropein which could be associated with their free radical-scavenging efficacy.