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Open access

Muhammad Ali Nasir, Alaa M. Soliman, Milton Yago and Junjie Wu

Abstract

This concise study analyses the symmetry of financial markets’ responses to macroeconomic policy interaction in the United Kingdom. Employing the Vector Auto-regression (VAR) model on monthly data of the British financial sector and macroeconomic policies from January 1985 to August 2008, this study found that the equity and sovereign debt markets showed identical symmetry in response to macroeconomic policy interaction.

Open access

Muhammad Ali Nasir, Milton Yagob, Alaa Solimanc and Junjie Wud

Abstract

This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE) and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions) could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee) and the BoE independence.

Open access

Trang Huyen My Pham and Muhammad Ali Nasir

Abstract

The fast growth of fashion brands and the popularity of counterfeit goods has posed certain challenges to the existing and new luxury fashion brand players. This study elaborates on the factors driving the market for counterfeit products in the UK. The data collected by means of survey questionnaires from 306 respondents and empirical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and multiple regression analysis), have shown that the consumers have a negative attitude towards counterfeit luxury products. However, they showed fewer tendencies to seek for a brand whose counterfeit cannot easily be found and preferred to buy a genuine rather than a counterfeit. In terms of frequency of purchase, reversion to counterfeit has negative impact, unlike the tendency to seek a brand whose counterfeit is hard to find. The overall results show that the attitude and acceptance of counterfeit do not greatly prevail in the market. However, about 27% of respondents demonstrated either a positive or a neutral tendency towards counterfeit products, which could have serious implications for the luxury goods market.

Open access

Riaz Ahmad, Asma Farooqi, Jiazhong Zhang and Nasir Ali

Abstract

A steady flow of a power law fluid through an artery with a stenosis has been analyzed. The equation governing the flow is derived under the assumption of mild stenosis. An exact solution of the governing equation is obtained, which is then used to study the effects of various parameters of interest on axial velocity, resistance to flow and shear stress distribution. It is found that axial velocity increases while resistance to flow decreases when going from shear-thinning to shear-thickening fluid. Moreover, the magnitude of shear stress decreases by increasing the tapering parameter. This problem was already addressed by Nadeem et al. [14], but the results presented by them were erroneous due to a mistake in the derivation of the governing equation of the flow. This mistake is highlighted in the "Formulation of the Problem" section.

Open access

M. Arshad Javid, M. Rafi, Ihsan Ali, Fayyaz Hussain, M. Imran and Ali Nasir

Abstract

Pure and Sn-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by simple chemical solution method. In this method we used zinc nitrate and NaOH as precursors. Sn doping content in ZnO was taken with the ratio 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent by weight. Physical properties of Sn-doped ZnO powder were studied by XRD analysis which revealed that Sn doping had a significant effect on crystalline quality, grain size, intensity, dislocation density and strain. The calculated average grain size of pure ZnO was 21 nm. The best crystalline structure was found for 0 wt.%, 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% Sn doping as observed by FESEM and XRD. However, higher Sn-doping (> 10 wt.%) degraded the crystallinity and the grain size of 27.67 nm to 17.76 nm. The structures observed in FESEM images of the samples surfaces were irregular and non-homogeneous. EDX depicted no extra peak of impurity and confirmed good quality of the samples.

Open access

Muhammad Ali Nasir, Junjie Wu and José Calderón Guerrero

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between tourism and economic growth, analyzing key factors affecting tourism income in Andalucía, Spain. Based on time series annual data for the period 2005 to 2012 and a multiple regression analysis we show that international tourism has made an important contribution to Andalucía’s economic growth. Some of the factors considered in the analysis include the number of luxury hotels, the hotel price index and the exchange rate, though the latter is outside of the control of local authorities under the European Monetary Union (EMU).

Open access

Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Abbas Ali Tasneem, Farina M. Hanif, Nasir Hassan Luck, Rajesh Mandhwani and Rajesh Wadhva

Abstract

Background and Objectives

The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is increased among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The aim of the current study was to describe the causes and characteristics of UGIB in ESRD patients at our center and to assess the need for endoscopic therapeutic intervention (ETI) using Rockall (RS) and Glasgow Blatchford scores (GBS).

Material and Methods

All patients with ESRD and UGIB with age ≥14 years were included. Frequencies and percentages were computed for categorical variables. Chi square test or Fischer’s exact test was used for statistical analysis.

Results

A total of 59 subjects had a mean age of 47.25 ± 15 years.The most common endoscopic findings seen were erosions in 33 (55.9%) patients, followed by ulcers in 18 (30.3%) patients. ETI was required in 33 (55.9%) patients, which included adrenaline injection in 19 (32.3%), hemoclip in 9 (15.2%) and argon plasma coagulation in 5 (8.4%) patients. Factors associated with the need of ETI were identified as: a combined presentation of hematemesis and melena (P=0.033), ulcer (P=0.002) and associated chronic liver disease (P=0.015). Six (10.1%) patients died. Death was more common if ETI was not performed (P=0.018).

Conclusion

ETI was more commonly required in patients on maintenance hemodialysis with UGIB, who had presence of combined hematemesis and melena, ulcers and associated chronic liver disease. A Glasgow Blatchford score of >14 was helpful in assessing the need for ETI in these patients.

Open access

Rajesh Kumar Wadhva, Muhammad Manzoorul Haque, Nasir Hassan Luck, Abbas Ali Tasneem, Zaigham Abbas and Muhammad Mubarak

Abstract

Objectives

The aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of APRI and FIB-4 in assessing the stage of liver fibrosis in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with chronic viral hepatitis and to compare the two tests with standard tru-cut liver biopsy.

Material and Methods

The study was conducted at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation Karachi (SIUT) from May 2010 to May 2014. All ESRD patients, being considered as candidates for renal transplantation and in whom liver biopsy was performed were included. Fibrosis stage was assessed on liver biopsy using Ishak scoring system. The serum transaminases and platelet counts were used to calculate APRI and FIB-4 scores.

Results

Out of 109 patients, hepatitis C and B virus infections were present in 104 (95.4%) and 3(2.8%), respectively, while 2 (1.8%) patients had both infections. The mean Ishak fibrosis score was 1.95 ± 2. Advanced fibrosis was noted in 37 (34%) patients. Univariate analysis showed that advanced liver fibrosis was associated with lower platelets counts (P=0.001) and higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P=0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P=0.022), APRI score (P=0.001) and FIB-4 score (P=0.001). On logistic regression analysis, only APRI score (P < 0.001) was found to be the independent variable associated with advanced liver fibrosis. APRI score cutoff ≥1 indicating advanced fibrosis showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%, 90.3%, 82.9%, 95.6%, respectively with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97. Similarly, a FIB-4 score cutoff ≥1.1 had sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 70.27%, 66.67%, 52% and 81.36%, respectively with AUC of 0.74.

Conclusion

APRI is more accurate noninvasive test for assessing advanced liver fibrosis in ESRD patients as compared to FIB-4. It can be used to obviate the need for liver biopsy in this high risk population.

Open access

Jawaid Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Khalid, Farina M. Hanif, Rajesh Mandhwani, Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Zain Majid and Nasir Hassan Luck

Abstract

Background

Renal dysfunction is one of the dreaded complications of cirrhosis. MELD is a validated chronic liver disease (CLD) severity scoring system. Urinary (U) Na/K ratio closely correlates with renal dysfunction in terms of low GFR in cirrhotic patients.

Patients and Methods

All consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis between the age of 18 to 70 years, of either gender, presenting in the outpatients’ department of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from June 2015 to June 2017 were included. The MELD score was calculated and the UNa/K ratio less than 1 was taken as surrogate marker of renal dysfunction. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 20.0).

Results

A total of 71 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 43.79 years and majority were male (67.6%). The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was HCV, found in 42 (59.2%) patients. The mean CTP score was 10.48 ± 2.069 (range: 6–14) with majority of the patients following in class C, that is, 48 (67.6%). Mean MELD score was 21.75 ± 8.96 (range: 8–43). In 57 patients (80.3%), MELD score was > 15.The mean serum creatinine and mean serum sodium were 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/dl (range: 0.37–5.3) and 133.79 ± 6.9 mmol/L (range: 112–152), respectively. Mean urinary sodium and urinary potassium were 38.60 ± 46.64 mmol/L (range: 5–181) and 38.15 ± 23.9 mmol/L (range: 4.3–112), respectively. In majority of study population, UNa/K ratio was below 1, that is, in 52 patients (73.2%). Statistically significant correlation was documented between MELD score and UNa/K ratio (ɤ = 0.34, P = 0.004).

Conclusion

The inverse correlation between MELD scores and UNa/K ratio indicates that patients with CLD and higher MELD scores might have renal dysfunction. This finding however should be corroborated by large scale studies.

Open access

Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Ali Syed, Nasir Abbas, Sana Hanif, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Akhlaq and Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract

A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.