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Open access

Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam and Sakine Ebrahimi

Abstract

A 37-year-old male was referred to us about one hour after deliberate ingestion of two 3-gram aluminium phosphide (ALP) tablets. Three hours after admission, his blood pressure dropped to 85/55 mmHg, his heart rate increased to 120 bpm, O2 saturation dropped to 82 %, and the electrocardiogram showed junctional rhythm. We started whole blood exchange, and gross haematuria and jaundice ensued. However, his blood pressure increased, arrhythmia resolved itself, and he was extubated two days after the transfusion was completed. He was sent home seven days after admission completely symptom-free. We believe this treatment may be successfully applied in ALP-poisoned patients.

Open access

Abbas Aghabiklooei, Shahin Shadnia, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam and Nasim Zamani

Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to methadone (MTD) toxicity is a known but rather uncommon phenomenon. In most of the previously reported cases of MTD-related ARDS, MTD was ingested orally in the form of tablets in high or unknown amounts. Despite the findings from the available literature, this case report is aimed at demonstrating that even small amounts of MTD syrup can cause ARDS earlier than it is usually expected. We present a non-addicted MTD-overdosed patient who developed ARDS after ingesting a very small amount of MTD syrup. We suggest close monitoring of MTD-overdosed patients from at least 48 h to 72 h for possible respiratory complications such as pulmonary oedema.

Open access

Behrooz Hashemi-Domeneh, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Mitra Rahimi, Shahin Shadnia, Peyman Erfantalab and Ali Ostadi

Abstract

The use of pesticides such as aluminium phosphide (AlP) has increased in the recent years and improved the quantity and quality of agricultural products in a number of developing countries. The downside is that AlP causes severe chronic and acute health effects that have reached major proportions in countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh, and Jordan. Nearly 300,000 people die due to pesticide poisoning in the world every year. Poisoning with AlP accounts for many of these deaths. Unfortunately, at the same time, there is no standard treatment for it. The aim of this article is to give a brief review of AlP poisoning and propose a treatment flowchart based on the knowledge gained so far. For this purpose we reviewed all articles on the management of AlP poisoning published from 2000 till now. Using a modified Delphi design, we have designed a handy flowchart that could be used as a guide for AlP poisoning management of patients in emergency centres.

Open access

Hossein Sanaei-Zadeh, Mohammadali Emamhadi, Hoorvash Farajidana, Nasim Zamani and Abdollah Amirfarhangi

The aim of this retrospective observational case series was to determine electrocardiographic (ECG) manifestations in patients poisoned with methanol and see whether they could predict mortality. We also wanted to see whether there was an association between ECG changes and time elapsed between ingestion and treatment, age, sex, seizure, coma (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8), arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters, and serum potassium levels on hospital admission. The study included 42 patients aged 31.14±12.5 years. Twenty-five survived and 17 died. Almost all patients had one or more abnormal ECG findings, including heart rate, rhythm, and conduction abnormalities. However, we found no significant difference between survivors and non-survivors. QTc interval did not correlate with time elapsed between ingestion and treatment, age, sex, seizure and coma, HCO3 -, or serum potassium level. Similarly, T waves showed no correlation with serum potassium. ECG abnormalities did not correlate with coma or seizure. Even though cardiotoxicity in methanol poisoning is high, none of the ECG abnormalities found in our study predicted mortality. This however does not rule out the need to routinely run ECG for cardiotoxicity in every single patient poisoned by methanol.

Open access

Omid Mehrpour, Ahmad Amouzeshi, Bita Dadpour, Zohreh Oghabian, Nasim Zamani, Shahram Amini and Robert S. Hoffman

Summary

Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a highly toxic pesticide that inhibits cytochrome oxidase c and causes oxidative stress. Death results from refractory cardiogenic shock due to myocardial dysfunction. There is very little information regarding extracorporeal life support in severe AlP poisoning. Although several therapies are available, none are curative. We report on the use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in a 24-year-old woman brought to our hospital after an intentional ingestion of a tablet of AlP (3 g), which caused refractory AlP-induced cardiogenic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient underwent gastric lavage with potassium permanganate, received sodium bicarbonate intravenously, and was admitted to the intensive care unit. Echocardiography at 36 h post ingestion showed a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of <20 %. An IABP was inserted and the patient’s vital signs stabilised. After eight days, the IABP was removed and on day 20, the patient’s LVEF increased to 50 %. IABP was successfully used and may improve future prognoses for severely poisoned AlP patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. We encourage clinical toxicologists to examine this new treatment.