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Open access

Naser Sabaghnia

Abstract

Interest in growing lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is increasing due to its potential returns relative to other legume crops in semi-arid areas. An experiment was conducted to examine the important traits on lentil under application of nano-fertilizer by using eight genotypes with application of the biplot technique in visualizing research data. Nano-iron oxide (2 g L-1) was utilized as foliar spray during vegetative and reproductive stages. The study revealed that genotype by trait (GT) biplot can graphically display the interrelationships among traits and facilitate visual comparison of genotypes. The first two principal components (PC1 and PC2) accounted for 76% of the total variation. The polygon view of GT biplot suggested four sections for the lentil genotypes as well as traits. The vertex genotypes G1 had plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, 100-grains weight and grain yield traits. The most prominent relation were: a strong positive association among biological yield, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, grains yield and plant height as indicated by the small obtuse angles between their vectors. The traits’ relationship in the semi-arid was highly variable, and grain yield improvement can be achieved by selecting for number of pods per plant, 100-grains weight. We suggest that the GT biplot be used jointly to better understand and more fully explore interaction pattern data.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia, Mohtasham Mohammadi and Rahmatollah Karimizadeh

Abstract

For durum wheat genotypes evaluation in multi-environmental trials (MET), measured seed yield is the combined result of effects of genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment GE interaction. The GE interaction structure can be identified if the data are stratified into homogeneous subsets through cluster analysis. A combined analysis to assess GE interactions of 20 durum wheat genotypes across 14 environments was undertaken. The combined analysis of variance for E, G and GE interaction was significant, suggesting differential responses of the genotypes in various environments. Four cluster methods, which differ in the dissimilarity indices depending on the regression model or ANOVA model, were used. According to dendograms of regression methods there were 10 different genotypic groups based on G (intercept) and GE (line slope) sources and 3 different genotypic groups based on GE (line slope) sources. Also, the dendograms of ANOVA methods indicated 11 different genotypic groups based on G and GE sources and 13 different genotypic groups based on GE sources. The above mentioned genotypic groups were determined via F-test as an empirical stopping criterion for clustering. Due to the high values of regression’s determination coefficient which ranged from 92.6 to 99.4, using of the linear regression-based clustering was more practical. The genotypes clustering based on similarity of linear regression parameters or ANOVA model indicated that there were considerable variations among durum wheat genotypes and there are different with each other in response to environmental changes. Such an outcome could be regularly applied in the future to clattering durum wheat genotypes and other crops based on regression or ANOVA models in the Middle East and other areas of the world.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia, Rahmatollah Karimizadeh and Mohtasham Mohammadi

Abstract

The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis has been indicated to be effective in interpreting complex genotype by environment (GE) interactions of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) multienvironmental trials. Eighteen improved lentil genotypes were grown in 12 semiarid environments in Iran from 2007 to 2009. Complex GE interactions are difficult to understand with ordinary analysis of variance (ANOVA) or conventional stability methods. Combined analysis of variance indicated the genotype by location interaction (GL) and three way interactions (GYL) were highly significant. FGH1 and FGH2 tests indicated the five significant components; FRatio showed three significant components and F-Gollob detected seven significant components. The RMSPD (root mean square predicted difference) values of validation procedure indicated seven significant components. Using five components in AMMI stability parameters (EVFI, SIP-CFI, AMGEFI and DFI) indicated that genotypes G5 and G6 were the most stable genotypes while considering three components in of AMMI stability parameters (EVFII, SIPCFII, AMGEFII and DFII) showed that genotypes G8 and G18 were the most stable genotypes. Also genotypes G2, G5 and G18 were the most stable genotypes according to AMMI stability parameters which calculated from seven components (EVFIII, SIP-CFIII, AMGEFIII and DFIII). Among these stable genotypes, only genotypes G2 (1365.63 kg × ha-1), G11 (1374.13 kg × ha′1) and G12 (1334.73 kg × ha-1) had high mean yield and so could be regarded as the most favorable genotype. These genotypes are therefore recommended for release as commercial cultivars.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia and Mohsen Janmohammadi

Abstract

Twenty-five lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.) genotypes were studied to evaluate the effects of the SiO2 nano-particles on plants under salt stress. The experiment was a 3×25 factorial arrangement with three levels of treatment solutions as (T1) distilled water as control, (T2) 100 mM NaCl concentration and (T3) 1 mM nano-silicon dioxide concentration plus 100 mM NaCl concentration, and 25 levels of lentil genotypes. Results showed a significant reduction in germination percent and seedling growth due to the salinity stress while significantly increased with silicon nano-particles application. The germination percentage, shoot length, root length, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight traits showed significant differences among lentil genotypes in treatment solutions. Results indicated that adding SiO2 nano-particles could improve germination and seedling early growth under salinity stress and the related traits were increased in all of lentil genotypes. Overall, application of SiO2 nano-particles was beneficial in improving salinity tolerance in the lentil seedling and its application may stimulate the differences defense mechanisms of plants against salt toxicity.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia and Mohsen Janmohammadi

Abstract

Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h) on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT) biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively). According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM) had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia and Mohsen Janmohammadi

Abstract

Sabaghnia N., Janmohammadi M., 2014: Interrelationships among some morphological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using biplot [Kviečių (Triticum aestivum L.) veislių morfologinių požymių sąveika naudojant biplot metodą]. - Bot. Lith., 20(1): 19-26.

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major food crops worldwide and Iran produces about 14 million tons of wheat annually. Effective interpretation of the data on breeding programmes is important at all stages of plant improvement. The cultivar by trait (CT) biplot was used for two-way wheat dataset as cultivars with multiple traits. For this propose, 13 wheat cultivars with specific characteristics were tested and the CT biplot for wheat dataset explained 65% of the total variation of the standardized data. The polygon view of CT presented for 18 different traits of wheat cultivars showed six vertex cultivars as G3, G4, G5, G9, G11 and G12. The cultivar G4 had the highest values for most of the measured traits. Generally based on vector view, ideal cultivar and ideal tester biplots, it was demonstrated that the selection of high grain yield will be performed via thousand seed weight, spike length and grain diameter. These traits should be considered simultaneously as effective selection criteria evolving high yielding wheat cultivars because of their large contribution to grain yield. The cultivars G3 and G4 could be considered for the developing of desirable progenies in the selection strategy of wheat improvement programmes

Open access

Mohsen Janmohammadi and Naser Sabaghnia

Abstract

Silicon is one of the most widespread macro elements that have beneficial effects on plant growth. Although its positive effects on plant growth and development have been widely considered, little information is available about possibility of nano-silicon utilization in seed invigoration treatments. Enhanced seed germination may lead to improved stand establishment and it can play important role in successful crop production. Partial hydration of the seeds followed by dehydration in a controlled environment often results in rapid seed germination and more uniform seedling emergence compared to untreated seeds. In the present study, the effect of seed soaking in different concentration nano-silicon solutions (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h) on germination characteristics of sunflower was investigated. Seed soaking in low concentration nano-silicon solutions (0.2 and 0.4 mM) significantly reduced days to 50% germination and mean germination time and improved root length, mean daily germination, seedling vigour index and final germination percentage. These results suggest that the incorporation of nano-silicon in priming solution, in an appropriate concentration, remarkably enhances germination performance and causes an effective invigoration of the seedling. These results underline the importance of pre-sowing seed soaking in diluted nano-silicon solutions for improving the germinability of sunflower.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia and Mohsen Janmohammadi

Abstract

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide, which limits crop production. The chickpea cultivation areas of Iran are fourth in the world after India, Pakistan and Turkey while most areas (95 %) are planted in rainfed condition and are grown in rotation with cereals. This investigation was carried out to investigate the effect of drought stress seed yield characteristic in seven genotypes of chickpea. A field experiment with two humidity regimes (stressed and non-stressed) was performed in a randomized complete block design layout with three replicates. The analysis of variance for both potential yield (YP) and stress yield (YS) indicated significant differences among seven chickpea genotypes. Also, significant differences were observed among chickpea genotypes regarding twelve drought tolerance indices. Based on the YP, the genotypes FLIP 03-64C, FLIP 98-106C, Arman and Azad had the highest yield under non-stressed condition, while the genotypes FLIP 98-106C and Azad displayed the highest yield under stressed condition. Therefore, the genotypes FLIP 98-106C and Azad are good candidates for commercial recommendation to farmers in both rainfed and irrigated conditions. The relationships among drought tolerance indices are graphically displayed in a plot of two first principal components analysis. The first and second components justified 95.46 % of the variations between criteria (59.36 and 36.10 % for PC1 and PC2, respectively). The STI, K1STI, MP, GMP and PI indices exhibited strong correlation with YP, while YI showed strong correlation with YS; therefore, YS can discriminate drought tolerant genotypes with high grain yield under stress conditions.

Open access

Naser Sabaghnia, Saeed Yousefzadeh, Mohsen Janmohammadi and Mehdi Mohebodini

Abstract

Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science widely exploited in agriculture in recent years. In this investigation, application of nanotechnology in agriculture via application of some nano-particles (nano-iron and nano-silicon) have been investigated in seed priming of dragonhead. Seeds were subjected to pre-hydration treatments by factor nano-silicon dioxide as; (S1) 0 mM or distilled water, (S2) 1 mM concentration and (S3) 2 mM concentration and and factor nano-iron oxide as; (F1) 0 Mm or distilled water, (F2) 1 mM concentration and (F3) 2 mM concentration. Germination percent, root fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, root length, shoot length, dry weight of the seed residue, root dry weight and shoot dry weight were measured. Analysis of variance showed significant variation for the main effect of nano-silicon dioxide as well as nano-iron dioxide in root length and dry weight of the seed residue. The interaction effect of nano-silicon × nano-iron priming treatments were significant in all of the measured traits except germination percentage and root fresh weight. The highest germination percentage was recorded in S2-F3, S3-F1 and S3-F3 while the root fresh weight was high in S2-F3 and treatments S1-F1 following to S2-F3 and S3-F2 produced the highest shoot fresh weight. Also, S2-F3 has the highest root length (16.1 cm) and the highest shoot length (18.4 cm). The best treatment combination suitable for obtaining of high values of germination characteristics of dragon-head was identified as S2-F3 (1 mM nano-silicon dioxide plus 2 mM nano-iron dioxide).

Open access

Mehdi Mohebodini, Naser Sabaghnia, Farhad Behtash and Mohsen Janmohammadi

Abstract

Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area) and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.