Although user information disclosure behavior in the context of social network service(SNS) has been well studied in previous literature, there is a lack of understanding about user information withholding behavior. To fill this research gap, the present study assumes that there might be a three-way interaction among information sensitivity, prevention focus, and interdependent self-construal regarding information withholding. The proposed model is empirically tested through an online survey of 479 users in the context of WeChat, one of the most popular SNSs in China. The results of hierarchical regression analysis verify the three-way interaction that prevention focus positively moderates the relationship between information sensitivity and information withholding, and interdependent self-construal strengthens the moderating effect of prevention focus. Findings in light of theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations of the study are discussed.
To assess the patterns and intensities of physical activity among pregnant women in southwestern China, which help us create a fitness regimen based on the 2002 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines for exercise during pregnancy.
A cross-sectional study was performed to recruit pregnant women at a prenatal checking visit clinic with the self-administered Chinese version of Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ).
A total of 1179 Chinese pregnant women were enrolled, of whom 92.60% were classified as not meeting the ACOG guidelines. By intensity, 47.36% of the score was attributed to light-intensity activities (1.5 to <3.0 metabolic equivalent [MET]) in the first trimester; the other 2 trimesters were similar. By patterns, about 45.15% of the score was attributed to inactivity. More than 82.35% of enrolled pregnant women regarded slowly walking as the most common type of exercise during pregnancy.
This study represents a group of Chinese women who maintained an inactive lifestyle, including low-intensity activities and unitary type of exercises during their pregnancy. Health-care providers are advised to provide appropriate physical activity guidelines to pregnant women. Development of MET-hours/week recommendations is warranted to promote greater physical activity during pregnancy.
This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) nursing combined with conventional nursing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Data were collected from the databases of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Data (WF) and VIP Database, including literature regarding the effects of TCM nursing combined with conventional nursing in patients with COPD published before January 2017. The Jadad scale was used to assess the quality of the eligible literature. The weighted mean differences and odds ratios were used to analyze St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, pulmonary function, hospital stay, and clinical efficacy.
Twenty-three randomized controlled trials comprising 3116 cases (TCM nursing combined with the conventional nursing group: 1559; conventional nursing group: 1557) met the inclusion criteria. TCM nursing combined with conventional nursing was associated with a lower SGRQ score, higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) value, higher FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) value, higher FEV1% value, higher FEV1 predicted value, shorter hospital stay, and preferable clinical efficacy.
TCM nursing combined with conventional nursing emphasized that dialectical nursing can be performed preferably in patients with COPD.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of empowerment education on depression level and laboratory indicators of patients treated with hemodialysis.
We searched databases including Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Academic Journals Full-text Database (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang. We included all the researches about the application of empowerment education in patients treated with hemodialysis. We used RevMan 5.3 to analyze the data after assessing the quality of researches.
We included 10 studies eventually. The results of meta-analysis showed that the self-efficacy [MD = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.71, 1.48), P < 0.01], depression [MD = -6.94, 95% CI (-8.53, -5.34), P < 0.01], serum creatinine [Scr; MD = -116.46, 95% CI (-171.90, -61.03), P < 0.01], albumin [Alb; MD = 2.93, 95% CI (2.00, 3.86), P < 0.01], and blood urea nitrogen [BUN; MD = -0.95, 95% CI (-1.89, -0.01), P = 0.05] in the empowerment education group had significantly statistical difference compared with those in the usual education group. However, there was no significant difference in hemoglobin [Hb; MD = 3.03, 95% CI (-0.64, 6.70), P = 0.11] between two groups.
Empowerment education can improve the self-efficacy in patients treated with hemodialysis, relieve depression, and improve Scr, Alb, and BUN. However, there is no significant improvement in Hb; it needs further exploration in clinical practice.
Introduction: The functions and mechanisms of prion proteins (PrPC) are currently unknown, but most experts believe that deformed or pathogenic prion proteins (PrPSc) originate from PrPC, and that there may be plural main sites for the conversion of normal PrPC into PrPSc. In order to better understand the mechanism of PrPC transformation to PrPSc, the most important step is to determine the replacement or substitution site.
Material and Methods: BALB/c mice were challenged with prion RML strain and from 90 days post-challenge (dpc) mice were sacrificed weekly until all of them had been at 160 dpc. The ultra-structure and pathological changes of the brain of experimental mice were observed and recorded by transmission electron microscopy.
Results: There were a large number of pathogen-like particles aggregated in the myelin sheath of the brain nerves, followed by delamination, hyperplasia, swelling, disintegration, phagocytic vacuolation, and other pathological lesions in the myelin sheath. The aggregated particles did not overflow from the myelin in unstained samples. The phenomenon of particle aggregation persisted all through the disease course, and was the earliest observed pathological change.
Conclusion: It was deduced that the myelin sheath and lipid rafts in brain nerves, including axons and dendrites, were the main sites for the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc, and the PrPSc should be formed directly by the conversion of protein conformation without the involvement of nucleic acids.
Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein and a unique 1-Cys Prdx of the peroxiredoxin family. The expression and regulation of Prdx6 are implicated in numerous physiological and pathological processes.
Material and Methods: Eight stepwise truncated DNA fragments obtained from the 5′-flank region of the Prdx6 gene were prepared and subcloned into the pSEAP2-Enhancer vectors. To investigate the transcriptional activity of the truncated DNA fragments, the recombinant plasmids were transfected into the COS-1 cells and the transcriptional activity was measured via assaying the expression of the reporter gene of the secreted alkaline phosphatase.
Results: A 3.4 kb 5′-upstream flank region of the Prdx6 gene was cloned and sequenced. The region from −108 nt to −36 nt of the 5′-flanking region of the Prdx6 gene contained basal transcriptional activity.
Conclusion: This result provides the basis for further studies on the gene regulation of the Prdx6-mediated biological processes and on screening for the transacting factors that interact with cis-acting elements of the Prdx6 gene promoter.
Preoperative diagnosis of gastric glomus tumor is very difficult, and there are few reports regarding the endoscopic treatment of glomus tumor of the stomach. Our aim is to provide a retrospective assessment of the imaging features of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and treatment of choice of gastric glomus tumor.
A database of all patients with gastric glomus tumor who was treated at Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between March 2011 and March 2017 was retrospectively analyzed. The EUS characteristics and patients’ clinical data as well as their treatment were reviewed. At the same time, we compared EUS characteristics of gastric glomus tumor with that of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GISTs), leiomyomas, schwannomas, and ectopic pancreas.
Eleven patients (3 male and 8 female patients) were included in the present study. The patients’ age ranged from 37 to 62 years (mean age, 50.1 years). Ten patients received EUS examination. Eight lesions were presented with mild-hyperechoic round or oval mass; one lesion was mild-hyperechoic oval mass with hypoechoic spots; one lesion was hypoechoic oval mass. One patient received endoscopic full-thickness resection; 3 patients were treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection; and laparoscopic resection was performed for 7 patients.
Gastric glomus has typical EUS features to differentiate from other submucosal tumors. Compared with surgery, endoscopic resection is also a safe and effective treatment of choice for gastric glomus tumor.
Recently, with the advancement of techniques, endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapies have shown distinct advantages, especially in relieving benign and malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), as well as in postoperative pancreaticobiliary diseases. Herein, we present five currently used approaches in endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) using lumenapposing biflanged metal stents (LAMS), along with several examples of LAMS-based EUS treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. Compared with traditional treatment methods, EUS-guided procedures have – to some degree – shown higher success rates, both technical and clinical. Moreover, EUS-guided therapies reduce the risk of multiple surgical adverse events, including delayed gastric emptying, prolonged hospital stay, increased costs, and delay in cancer treatment. Particularly in terms of postoperative pancreaticobiliary diseases, EUS-guided therapy has assumed an essential role as a treatment option in cases where traditional methods are difficult to perform. Nevertheless, EUS-guided gastrointestinal procedures are still relatively new, with some clinical failures, and additional prospective clinical trials are warranted.
Objective To investigate the infection rate of hepatitis C virus among the ambulatory patients and in-patients of a tertiary teaching hospital, and study the demographic factors related to the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection.
Methods All patients tested for hepatitis C virus antibody from July 2008 to July 2009 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled in this cross-sectional analysis. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection was compared according to age, gender, and departments, respectively. Among patients with positive serology hepatitis C virus marker, the positivity of hepatitis C virus RNA was analysed.
Results Among 29 896 subjects included, the hepatitis C virus antibody of 494 patients were positive (1.7%). When patients were divided into 9 age groups, the age specific prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody were 0.2%, 1.7%, 1.2%, 1.1%, 1.5%, 1.9%,2.6%, 2.4% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody in non-surgical department and surgical department was 3% and 1%, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody of males was higher than that of the females. Total of 194 patients with positive hepatitis C virus antibody were tested for hepatitis C virus RNA, the RNA level of 113 patients (58.2%) were higher than the low detection limit.
Conclusions The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibody was relatively high among patients of general tertiary hospital. Age group of 60-69, males and patients in non-surgical departments were factors associated with high rate of hepatitis C virus infection.
To study the effects of tobacco rod circumference on cigarette combustion status, cigarettes were made with three different circumferences of 24 mm, 20 mm, 17 mm and otherwise identical construction. Their combustion characteristics, including combustion coal volume, characteristic temperature distribution, heating rate, instantaneous burn rate, and yields of selected mainstream smoke chemicals, were systematically measured. The results indicated that the cigarettes with the lowest circumference of 17 mm showed higher combustion temperatures with a smaller coal volume. The maximum instantaneous burn rate was distinctly different for the three cigarettes, from 1.84 mm/s to 2.48 mm/s, when their circumference was reduced from 24 mm to 17 mm. The tobacco mass consumption per puff showed a negative trend when the circumference decreased. The majority of the chemical compounds (16 of 21) measured in mainstream smoke decreased when the circumference was reduced, except for formaldehyde, while the yields of the chemical compounds produced per weight of cut tobacco, consumed during puffing, showed an obverse trend.