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Manju Ceylony, Jahan Porhomayon, Leili Pourafkari and Nader D. Nader


Introduction. Internal Medicine residents must develop competency as Primary Care Providers, but a gap exists in their curriculum and training with regard to women’s reproductive health. With increasing need in VA due to new influx of women veterans it poses problems in recruitment of competent physicians trained in Women’s health. Methods. An intensive, one-month women’s reproductive health curriculum with hands on experience for Internal Medicine residents was provided. Curriculum was taught to the residents who rotated at the Women’s Health Clinic for one month. Pre-test and post-test exams were administered. Increase in knowledge of residents in providing gender specific evaluations and management was objectively assessed by changes in post-test scores. Data were analyzed for statistically significant improvement in written tests scores. Results. Total of 47 Internal Medicine residents rotated through Women’s Health Center during the evaluation period. All residents completed both pre-test and post-test exams. The average time to complete the pre-test was 20.5 ± 5.4 min and 19.5 ± 4.8 min for post-test. There was no correlation between the time to complete the pre-test exam and the post-test exam. The total score was significantly improved from 8.5 ± 1.6 to 13.2 ± 1.8 (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. This study shows how to equip physicians in training with information on women’s health that enables them to provide safe and gender appropriate care in primary care settings. This practice will reduce the need for frequent referrals for specialized care and thus provide cost saving for patient and health care on the whole.

Open access

Reza Hajizadeh, Samad Ghaffari, Ahmad Separham, Behrouz Shokouhi, Hadiseh Kavandi, Leili Pourafkari and Nader D. Nader


Introduction. In-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a major limitation of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A role for peripheral blood cells as major regulators of immune and inflammatory systems has been proposed. We aim to evaluate the relationship between eosinophil count and development of restenosis after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation.

Methods. In this prospective study, all consecutive patients undergoing elective DES implantation for chronic stable angina (CSA) in a university-affiliated heart center within a 6-month period were enrolled and followed for another 6 months. Complete blood count with differentiation was performed 6 weeks after the index procedure. During the follow-up period, the cohort of patients who developed ISR was compared to the cohort of patients without ISR, descriptively and the total number of eosinophilic white cells was used to predict the occurrence of ISR.

Results. 153 men and 48 women with CSA underwent PCI with DES implantation, from which, 26 patients needed repeat coronary angiography for recurrent symptoms. There was an established ISR in 17 (8.5%) patients. The total number of eosinophils in their peripheral blood was 267 ± 132 cells/μL in patients with ISR, significantly higher than the number of eosinophils in those without ISR 174 ± 133 cells/μL (P-value < 0.010). Eosinophil count remained an independent predictor of ISR in multivariate analysis as the eosinophil count value over 242 cells/μL had sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 84.5% for the presence of ISR.

Conclusion. The total number of eosinophils, counted 6 weeks after DES implantation, prevails as the sole predictor of ISR occurrence in our study. This suggests an association between immune sensitivity reaction to DES material and development of ISR in patients after PCI.