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  • Author: Nada Krstovski x
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Pharmacogenomic markers of glucocorticoid response in the initial phase of remission induction therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Abstract

Background

Response to glucocorticoid (GC) monotherapy in the initial phase of remission induction treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents important biomarker of prognosis and outcome. We aimed to study variants in several pharmacogenes (NR3C1, GSTs and ABCB1) that could contribute to improvement of GC response through personalization of GC therapy.

Methods

Retrospective study enrolling 122 ALL patients was carried out to analyze variants of NR3C1 (rs33389, rs33388 and rs6198), GSTT1 (null genotype), GSTM1 (null genotype), GSTP1 (rs1695 and rs1138272) and ABCB1 (rs1128503, rs2032582 and rs1045642) genes using PCR-based methodology. The marker of GC response was blast count per microliter of peripheral blood on treatment day 8. We carried out analysis in which cut-off value for GC response was 1000 (according to Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster [BFM] protocol), as well as 100 or 0 blasts per microliter.

Results

Carriers of rare NR3C1 rs6198 GG genotype were more likely to have blast count over 1000, than the non-carriers (p = 0.030). NR3C1 CAA (rs33389-rs33388-rs6198) haplotype was associated with blast number below 1000 (p = 0.030). GSTP1 GC haplotype carriers were more likely to have blast number below 1000 (p = 0.036), below 100 (p = 0.028) and to be blast negative (p = 0.054), while GSTP1 GT haplotype and rs1138272 T allele carriers were more likely to be blasts positive (p = 0.034 and p = 0.024, respectively). ABCB1 CGT (rs1128503-rs2032582-rs1045642) haplotype carriers were more likely to be blast positive (p = 0.018).

Conclusions

Our results have shown that NR3C1 rs6198 variant and GSTP1 rs1695-rs1138272 haplotype are the most promising pharmacogenomic markers of GC response in ALL patients.

Open access
Variants in TPMT, ITPA, ABCC4 And ABCB1 Genes as Predictors of 6-Mercaptopurine Induced Toxicity in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Summary

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common childhood malignancy. Optimal use of anti leukemic drugs has led to less toxicity and adverse reactions, and a higher survival rate. Thiopurine drugs, including 6-mercaptopurine, are mostly used as antileukemic medications in the maintenance phase of treatment for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. For those patients, TPMT genotype- tailored 6-mercaptopurine therapy is already implemented in the treatment protocols. We investigated the role of TPMT, ITPA, ABCC4 and ABCB1 genetic variants as predictors of outcome and 6-mercaptopurine induced toxicity during the maintenance phase of treatment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sixty-eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in this study. Patients have been treated according to ALL IC-BFM 2002 or ALL IC-BFM 2009 protocols. Toxicity and adverse events have been monitored via surrogate markers (off-therapy weeks, episodes of leu - ko penia and average 6-mercaptopurine dose) and a prob- abilistic model was employed to predict overall 6-mercaptopurine related toxicity. We confirmed that patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia that carry inactive TPMT allele(s) require 6- mercaptopurine dose reduction. ITPA and ABCC4 genetic variants failed to show an association with 6-mercapto - purine induced toxicity during the maintenance phase. Carriers of ABCB1 variant allele experienced greater hepatotoxicity. The probabilistic model Neural net which considered all the analysed genetic variants was assessed to be the best prediction model. It was able to discriminate ALL patients with good and poor 6-mercaptopurin tolerance in 71% of cases (AUC=0.71). This study contributes to the design of a panel of pharmacogenetic markers for predicting thiopurineinduced toxicity in pediatric ALL.

Open access
Application of targeted next generation sequencing for the mutational profiling of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Summary

Background

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children, whereas it is less common in adults. Identification of cytogenetic aberrations and a small number of molecular abnormalities are still the most important risk and therapy stratification methods in clinical practice today. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology provides a large amount of data contributing to elucidation of mutational landscape of childhood (cALL) and adult ALL (aALL).

Methods

We analyzed DNA samples from 34 cALL and aALL patients, using NGS targeted sequencing TruSeq Amplicon – Cancer Panel (TSACP) which targets mutational hotspots in 48 cancer related genes.

Results

We identified a total of 330 variants in the coding regions, out of which only 95 were potentially protein-changing. Observed in individual patients, detected mutations predominantly disrupted Ras/RTK pathway (STK11, KIT, MET, NRAS, KRAS, PTEN). Additionally, we identified 5 patients with the same mutation in HNF1A gene, disrupting both Wnt and Notch signaling pathway. In two patients we detected variants in NOTCH1 gene. HNF1A and NOTCH1 variants were mutually exclusive, while genes involved in Ras/RTK pathway exhibit a tendency of mutation accumulation.

Conclusions

Our results showed that ALL contains low number of mutations, without significant differences between cALL and aALL (median per patient 2 and 3, respectively). Detected mutations affect few key signaling pathways, primarily Ras/RTK cascade. This study contributes to knowledge of ALL mutational landscape, leading to better understanding of molecular basis of this disease.

Open access
Expression pattern of long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 in the remission induction therapy in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Summary

Background

Long non-coding RNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) is deregulated in many cancers because of its role in cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, GAS5 interacts with glucocorticoid receptor, making it a potential pharmacotranscription marker of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. In this study, we aimed at analysing GAS5 expression in the remission induction therapy phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), in which GCs are mandatorily used, and to correlate it with therapy response.

Methods

GAS5 expression was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken from 29 childhood ALL patients at diagnosis, on day 15 and day 33 of remission induction therapy using RT-qPCR methodology.

Results

Our results have shown interindividual differences in GAS5 expression at all time points. For each ALL patient, GAS5 expression was higher on day 15 in comparison to its level at diagnosis (p<0.0005). On day 33, the level of GAS5 expression decreased in comparison with day 15 (p<0.0005), but it was still significantly higher than at diagnosis for the majority of patients (p=0.001). Patients whose number of blasts on day 8 was below 100 per μL of peripheral blood had a higher GAS5 expression at diagnosis (p=0.016), and lower ratio day 15/diagnosis (p=0.009).

Conclusions

Our results suggest that the expression level of GAS5 could be a potential marker of therapy response in remission induction therapy of childhood ALL.

Open access