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J. Ekmanis, E. Tomsons and N. Zeltiņš

At the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) of 2001 the measures were approved which are necessary for the development of future generation nuclear reactors (NRs). Six best high-temperature NR technologies were selected, with the main criteria being the safe and economically profitable operation, long-term use, protection against the employment of nuclear material for military purposes and terroristic attacks as well as technologies of fuel close cycle in order to increase the amount of fission material and decrease the amount of highly radioactive waste. In four of the technologies, apart from electricity production also hydrogen is obtained. Part 1 presents a generalized description of the high-temperature NRs, their comparative characteristics and history, with the stopped and operational HTNRs outlined. The properties of different type nuclear fuels are described in detail

Open access

Projects of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors

(Overview. Part 2) / Augstas Temperatūras Kodolreaktoru Projekti

J. Ekmanis, E. Tomsons and N. Zeltiņš

Part 2 of the overview gives emphasis to the projects of high-temperature NRs, whose development is an area of active engagement for the specialists from the USA, France, Japan, Russia, China, the Netherlands, and Germany. Projects of several powerful NRs of the HTGR type for commercial use had been worked out in the USA and Germany already by 1970 but not yet implemented.

Open access

J. Ekmanis, V. Zebergs, N. Zeltins and V. Vrublevski

Thermal Characteristics of New Building Materials and their Effect upon the Energy Efficiency

The paper formulates the role of thermal inertia of the building materials in the energy supply of buildings and in solution of the energy efficiency problems. The evolution of construction entails the application of new building materials as well as of glazed surfaces in the envelopes of buildings. An analysis is made of the influence of the thermal resistance of building materials and their heat capacity on the thermal inertia indicators of buildings. An inertia scale of buildings has been developed for the choice of the heat supply capacities of buildings at low outdoor temperatures under extreme conditions of the Latvian climate. The ratio of the ventilation capacities has been analysed in the total heating balance at a low thermal inertia of buildings. The significance of innovative ventilation technologies for raising the energy efficiency has been considered.

Open access

R. Ney, J. Michna, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins and V. Zebergs

Energy Use and Related Risk Management Problems in CEE Countries

Nowadays, the efficiency of energy use in the Central and East-European (CEE) countries is insufficient, being much lower than in the "Old Europe". The problem becomes increasingly pressing due to non-stop increasing prices of energy carriers (especially of crude oil). The authors trace the development of research activities in this sphere, classifying the revealed changes in parameters of energy consumption processes in particular time intervals into deterministic, probabilistic, and fuzzy. The paper presents a thorough analysis of decision-making in the energy management at its different levels - normative, strategic, and operative. Particular attention is given to the management under uncertainty conditions - i.e. to the risk management. The most wanted research directions in this area proposed by the energy and environment policy (EEP) Center specially created for CEE countries concern management under risk connected with innovations, international activities, loss of reputation, etc. The authors consider in detail the risk management with insufficient knowledge (non-knowledge) and under chaos. Much consideration is given to the scenario management and the game theory principles as related to the sphere of energy use.

Open access

L. Zemite, A. Kutjuns, I. Bode, M. Kunickis and N. Zeltins

Abstract

In the present research, the main critical points of gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been determined to ensure secure and reliable gas supply among the Baltic States to fulfil the core objectives of the EU energy policies.

Technical data of critical points of the gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been collected and analysed with the SWOT method and solutions have been provided to increase the reliability of the regional natural gas system.

Open access

L. Zemite, A. Kutjuns, I. Bode, M. Kunickis and N. Zeltins

Abstract

The Latvian natural gas system is interconnected with transmission networks located in Lithuania, Estonia and Russia. Natural gas commercial metering is provided by GMS “Karksi” (Estonia) and by GMS “Kiemenai” (Lithuania). Natural gas is supplied to all larger urban areas in Latvia. Natural gas is supplied to Latvia along the Latvian–Russian pipeline only during the warm period of the year (April–September), and it is accumulated in the underground gas storage facility in Incukalns. During winter, gas from the underground facility is delivered to Latvian customers, as well as transmitted to Estonia and back to Russia. There is also a connection to Lithuania. Out of the gas supply disruption risks that are assessed at different levels, the essential one with a trans-border impact potential consists in the insufficient technical capacity of Incukalns UGS. Given the current technical possibilities, IUGS cannot pass the gas volume required for the Baltic States to compensate the gas supply deficit. The paper performs system recovery analysis after selected critical events. The paper provides a report describing the steps to be followed in order to restore the gas transmission system to normal operation after selected critical events. A very significant region of the power system of Latvia is the central part of Latvia and Riga region, where both of Riga CHPs, as well as Riga HPP, is located. The restoration time of the gas system of Latvia depends on the gravity of the situation and damage in the gas system and may range from several hours to several days.

Open access

J. Michna, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins, V. Zebergs and J. Siemianowicz

MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION: CURRENT METHODICAL PROBLEMS

The paper presents a continuation in the series of works devoted to the acute problems of energy use management in different periods of economic transition in the CEE countries. Research carried out by the team of scientists has resulted in creation of modern management methods. In particular, unitary indices were worked out which connect the consumption of energy carriers and environment pollutions in a definite time period and the values of production (services) realised in this period.

The cooperation of researchers from different countries has given rise to the ICEEP (International Center of Energy and Environment Policy), where under research are issues of the risk management in the conditions of informational uncertainty, non-knowledge, as well as dynamic and stochastic behaviour of systems (processes). The main emphasis in the methodical approaches is given to the complex (strategic) thinking, which would be necessary for establishment of global regulations in the scope of energy and environment conservation.

Open access

J. Michna, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins, V. Zebergs and J. Siemianowicz

Innovation Risk Management in the Rational Energy Use (Part 2)

The paper (written in two parts) is a continuation in the series of works devoted to the acute problems of risk management in various areas associated with energy and environment conservation. While in Part 1 the authors developed general conceptions of risk management as related to the rational energy use, Part 2 presents a closer examination of specific problems arising in this sphere when innovations are involved.

The relevant methodical approaches have mostly been elaborated at the International Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (ICEEP).

Open access

F. Molochko, A. Molochko, J. Ekmanis, N. Zeltins and V. Zebergs

Estimation of the Energy Security Level and Definition of the Criteria for Damage Forecasts

In the work, the energy security indicators in a region (a state) are considered, and two general directions are proposed for search among the criteria for estimation and forecast of the damage inflicted by power supply limitations: based on the differentiated calculations for each economic subject, and on the generalised indices of regional economy. Of especial interest is analysis of a recently introduced damage intensity factor and its dependence on the level of limitations and the type of energy carriers.

Open access

I. Geipele, S. Geipele, T. Staube, G. Ciemleja and N. Zeltins

Abstract

Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.