The research in textiles is being driven by ecology, economy, and functionality. Therefore, the present research is focused on the development of multifunctional textiles that consume minimum energy during their processing, eco-friendly chemicals for functionalization, and use short processing steps. Eco-friendly cross-linkers such as butanetetracarboxylic acid and zinc oxide nanoparticles are used to impart wrinkle recovery, antibacterial activity, ultraviolet (UV) protection, bending rigidity, and antistatic properties to cotton fabric just in one step. The treated fabric has been characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffractometer. Wrinkle recovery, tear strength, antibacterial activity, UV protection, and antistatic properties were tested with AATCC 66-1990, ASTM D 1224, AATCC 147, AATCC 183, and UNI EN 1149, respectively. The treated fabric shows excellent functional properties up to 20 washing cycles.
Functionalization of textile fabrics with metal oxide nanoparticles can be used to add antibacterial and moisture management properties to them. Current work focuses on the development of these properties on polyester/cotton woven fabrics by treating them with zinc oxide nanoparticles for workwear and sportswear applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, prepared by sol-gel method, were applied on fabric samples, which were then tested for antibacterial and moisture management properties using standard test methods AATCC 147 with Staphylococcus aureus and AATCC 195, respectively. It was found that application of ZnO nanoparticles improved both these properties with smaller particle imparting larger effects on both of them.
A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.
The demand of cotton is increasing but its low production rate cannot fulfill the world requirements. The increase in cotton demand has augmented the production of regenerated cellulosic fibers. Furthermore, cotton has proved to be unsustainable because of the use of huge amount of fresh water, pesticides and insecticides. The purpose of this work is to find out the suitable blend/blends of regenerated fibers so as to replace 100% cotton fabrics. Therefore, mechanical and comfort properties of Tencel fabrics blended with other regenerated cellulose fibers have been compared with 100% cotton to achieve the equivalent or even better end properties. Hence, cotton, viscose, Tencel, modal, and bamboo fibers were taken. Plain woven blended fabrics of 100% cotton and 50:50 blends of Tencel with other regenerated fibers were prepared from normal yarn count of 20 tex. The mechanical properties (warp-wise and weft-wise tensile and tear strengths, pilling, and abrasion resistance) and the comfort properties including air permeability, moisture management properties, and thermal resistance were evaluated. It is found that Tencel blended fabrics show better results than 100% cotton fabrics. Therefore, it is concluded that Tencel blended with these regenerated fabrics can be used to replace 100% cotton fabrics.
The paper investigates the effects of weave structure and fabric thread density on the comfort and mechanical properties of various test fabrics woven from polyester/cotton yarns. Three different weave structures, that is, 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill and 3/1 twill, and three different fabric densities were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, overall moisture management capacity, tensile strength and tear strength of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and fabric density on the response variables. The results of fabric samples were analysed in Minitab statistical software. The coefficients of determinations (R-sq values) of the regression equations show a good predictive ability of the developed statistical models. The findings of the study may be helpful in deciding appropriate manufacturing specifications of woven fabrics to attain specific comfort and mechanical properties.