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Riaz Ahmad, Absar-ul Hasnain, Arshad Khan and Mumtaz Alam

Presence of Circulating Lactate Dehydrogenase-Immunoglobulin G (LDH-IgG) Complex in the Sera of Post-Burn Patient

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that belongs to the class oxidoreductase. It actively participates in the inter-conversion of lactate to pyruvate during anaerobic glycolysis in cell cytoplasm. Available literature suggests that there exist only five isoenzymes of LDH which on polyacrylamide gels (Native PAGE) resolve into five bands in normal healthy individuals. However, the presence of extra band in humans is either detected in reproductive tissues or during some pathological state. Here, we report a case in which an extra sixth band of LDH was visualized which forms a complex with IgG in the circulating sera of burn subject. The presence of LDH-IgG complex was confirmed in freshly collected sera using PAGE and immunological approaches. The complex get disappears from 2nd day onwards. The probable reason of the formation of this complex and its relation with the progression of the disease is discussed.

Open access

Riaz Ahmad, Nazia Nazam, Arshad Khan and Mumtaz Alam

Significance of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase and its Isoenzymes During Post-Burn Follow-Up

The present study aims to evaluate the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in thermal burns. A total of 18 patients of both genders with 20 to 50% total burn surface area (TBSA), admitted to the Burn Ward of JN Medical College and Hospital was assessed. These patients were subjected to general and systemic examinations. The sera collected at day 1, 2, 5 and 10 during follow-up of burn patients were used for LDH quantitation. PAGE profiles showed significant differences in the levels of LDH isoenzymes in all the burn subjects (P=0.05). Software analysis of gel-scans showed the presence of five isoenzyme bands of which LDH-1 and -2 are the least contributors. During follow-up, it was observed that the ranking of LDH isoenzymes approaches control values at day 2 in 20% TBSA patients, while in the remaining cases it occurs at day 5. 3D-densitograms indicated high activity of LDH in 50% of TBSA patients even at day 10; however, the relative ranking of these isoenzymes was similar to control values (LDH-4>- 5>-3>-1>-2). We were of the opinion that the high activity of LDH enzyme is due to the enzyme-immunoglobulin-G (LDH-IgG) complex, but surprisingly we did not observe this complex in 50% of burn patients at any of the durations. Therefore, it is suggested that LDH isoenzymes play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease and can be an asset to ascertain the invisible tissue damage. Moreover, the high activity of LDH in 50% of burns is due to some unknown mechanism and not due to the binding of LDH with IgG.

Open access

Riaz Ahmad, Saba Qayyum, Absar-ul Hasnain, Anjum Ara, Arshad Khan and Mumtaz Alam

Observation on the Changes in Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes in Post-Burn Patients: Significance in Relation to Creatine Kinase

The present study deals with the quantitative assessment of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the sera of burn subjects. Efforts are also made here to show better predictive marker value of sera LDH, as a few other known protein markers like creatine kinase and myoglobin have limited analytical value in the management of thermal burns. Blood was initially collected at day-1 of admission from 29 burn and 10 healthy subjects. Further, the sampling was carried out at 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days of wound healing (recovery). Plasma and sera LDH isoenzymes were monitored on 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Quantitative assessment of LDH isoenzymes was done from gelscans using GelPro and Scion Imaging softwares. Sera CK levels were estimated colorimetrically using reagent kits. Our results show that quantitative changes in LDH isoenzyme were more convincing and interpretable in the sera than plasma. Sera LDH-5 isoenzyme was detected as the major contributor of total sera LDH activity, which follows a change parallel to sera CK in burn subjects. Sera LDH-5 activity also remains significantly high for up to 10 days while sera CK levels were detected elevated up to 5 days (P<0.05) during the recovery of patients. Therefore, the present findings strongly recommended the use of sera to assess the LDH activity and indicate better stability of sera LDH-5 than sera CK during post burn wound healing.

Open access

Subuhi Khan, Mumtaz Riyasat and Ghazala Yasmin


The main aim of this article is to established certain symmetry identities for the 2-variable Apostol type polynomials. The symmetry identities for some special polynomials related to the 2-variable Apostol type polynomials are deduced as special cases. Certain interesting examples are considered to establish the symmetry identities for the 2-variable Gould-Hopper-Apostol type, 2-variable generalized Laguerre-Apostol type and 2-variable truncated exponential-Apostol type polynomials. The special cases of the symmetry identities associated with these polynomials are also given.

Open access

Hamed Al-Nadabi, Mumtaz Khan, Rashid Abdullah Al-Yahyai and Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sadi


A study was conducted to evaluate genetic relatedness of 27 citrus cultivars and 6 wild citrus accessions using AFLP fingerprinting. The 27 citrus cultivars belonged to Citrus sinensis, C. aurantifolia, C. aurantium, C. paradise, C. reticulata, C. limon, C. latifolia, C. maxima, C. limettoides, C. limetta, C. medica and C. Jambhiri. The wild cultivars were obtained from Oman while the other cultivars originated from Oman and other countries. AFLP analysis using 4 primer pair combinations resolved 910 polymorphic alleles. All citrus cultivars and accessions had low genetic diversity (H = 0.0281 to 0.1300), with the percent polymorphic loci ranging from 8 to 35%. Populations of the six wild citrus accessions showed a very low level of genetic diversity (< 0.0700). Cluster analysis of the 33 cultivars and accessions showed that they share a high level of genetic similarity (81‒99%; mean = 92%). The six wild accessions clustered into two main clusters, with the analysis indicating that the six wild accessions may make up six distinct cultivars. The study provides information on the phylogeny of citrus cultivars and citrus diversity in Oman, a country through which citrus moved in the past from Asia to different African and European countries. In addition, it shows that some distinct citrus cultivars are present in this part of the world.