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Open access

Ahsan Nazir, Tanveer Hussain, Ali Afzal, Sajid Faheem, Waseem Ibrahim and Muhammad Bilal

Abstract

The aim of this study was to develop statistical models for predicting the air permeability and light transmission properties of woven cotton fabrics and determine the level of correlation between the two parameters. Plain woven fabrics were developed with different warp and weft linear densities, ends per inch and picks per inch. After desizing, scouring, bleaching, drying and conditioning, the air permeability and light transmission properties of the fabric samples were determined. Regression analysis results showed statistically significant effect of the fabric ends, picks and warp linear density on both the fabric air permeability and light transmission. Correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relation between the fabric air permeability and light transmission. A linear equation was also formulated to find the fabric air permeability through transmission of light intensity. A fitted line plot between the air permeability and light transmission exhibited significant correlation with R-sq. value of 96.4%. The statistical models for the prediction of fabric air permeability and light transmittance were developed with an average prediction error of less than 7%.

Open access

Yasir Ahmad, Umer Ali, Muhammad bilal, Sohail Zafar and Zohaib Zahid

Abstract

In this paper, we study 3–total edge product cordial (3–TEPC) labeling which is a variant of edge product cordial labeling. We discuss Web, Helm, Ladder and Gear graphs in this context of 3–TEPC labeling. We also discuss 3–TEPC labeling of some particular examples with corona graph.

Open access

Sheikh Bilal Badar, Robia Ghafoor, Muhammad Hasan Hameed and Natasha Anwer

Summary

Background/Aim: The management of horizontal root fracture is not straight forward. It depends upon the location of the fracture, mobility and vitality of fractured tooth segment. The goal of treatment is to restore the shape and function of affected tooth.

Case report: This following case report described the conservative management of horizontal root fracture which was also displaced but somehow maintained its vitality. The affected tooth was initially stabilized and followed up in the subsequent appointments for evaluation of vitality that turned out to be vital, thus, preventing any unnecessary intervention.

Conclusions: Horizontal root fractures in the vital teeth should be initially managed conservatively and every effort should be made to preserve the vitality of tooth.

Open access

Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Zulfiqar Ali Malik, Usman Ali, Amir Shahzad, Tanveer Hussain, Amir Abbas, Muhammad Asad and Zubair Khaliq

Abstract

The objective of this study was to model the physical and mechanical properties of 100% cotton slub yarns commonly used in denim and other casual wear. Statistical models were developed using central composite experimental design of the response surface methodology. Yarn’s linear density, slub thickness, slub length and pause length were used as the key input variables while yarn strength, elongation, coefficient of mass variation, imperfections and hairiness were used as response/output variables. It was concluded that yarn strength and elongation increased with increase in linear density and pause length, and decreased with increase in slub thickness and slub length. Yarn mass variation and total imperfections increased with increase in slub thickness and pause length, whereas yarn imperfections and hairiness decreased with increase in slub length. It was further concluded that due to statistically significant square and interaction effects of some of the input variables, only the quadratic model instead of the linear models can adequately represent the relationship between the input and the output variables. These statistical models will be of great importance for the industrial personnel to improve their productivity and reduce sampling.

Open access

Pedro Moreno-Sanchez, Muhammad Bilal Zafar and Aniket Kate

Abstract

The decentralized I owe you (IOU) transaction network Ripple is gaining prominence as a fast, low-cost and efficient method for performing same and cross-currency payments. Ripple keeps track of IOU credit its users have granted to their business partners or friends, and settles transactions between two connected Ripple wallets by appropriately changing credit values on the connecting paths. Similar to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, while the ownership of the wallets is implicitly pseudonymous in Ripple, IOU credit links and transaction flows between wallets are publicly available in an online ledger. In this paper, we present the first thorough study that analyzes this globally visible log and characterizes the privacy issues with the current Ripple network. In particular, we define two novel heuristics and perform heuristic clustering to group wallets based on observations on the Ripple network graph. We then propose reidentification mechanisms to deanonymize the operators of those clusters and show how to reconstruct the financial activities of deanonymized Ripple wallets. Our analysis motivates the need for better privacy-preserving payment mechanisms for Ripple and characterizes the privacy challenges faced by the emerging credit networks.

Open access

Hajira Haroon, Syed Mubashar Hussain Gardazi, Tayyab Ashfaq Butt, Arshid Pervez, Qaisar Mahmood and Muhammad Bilal

Abstract

Cr(VI) adsorption was studied for abundantly available low-cost lignocellulosic adsorbents in Pakistan namely, tobacco stalks (TS), white cedar stem (WCS) and eucalyptus bark (EB). Several process variables like contact time, adsorbent dose, pH, metal concentration, particle size and temperature were optimized in batch mode. EB showed high Cr(VI) adsorption of 63.66% followed by WCS 62% and TS 57% at pH 2, which is higher than most of the reported literature. Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.999) was well fitted into the equilibrium Cr(VI) data of EB, suggesting homogeneous active sites and monolayer coverage of Cr(VI) onto the EB surface. Freundlich (R2 = 0.9982) isotherm was better fitted to the equilibrium data of TS and WCS, revealing the adsorption sites with heterogeneous energy distribution and multilayer Cr(VI) adsorption. Moreover, the Cr(VI) adsorption of studied adsorbents followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic properties were investigated in two temperature ranges, i.e., T1 (303–313 K) and T2 (313–323 K). TS and EB showed the exothermic at T1 and endothermic reactions at T2 with entropy controlled adsorption at the solid-liquid interface, and WCS exhibited an opposite thermal trend with decreasing disorderness at solid-liquid interface as temperature rises. Gibbs free energy (ΔG>0) confirmed the non-spontaneous adsorption process for all studied adsorbents.

Open access

Muhammad Bilal Qureshi, Saleh Alrashed, Nasro Min-Allah, Joanna Kołodziej and Piotr Arabas

Abstract

When there is a mismatch between the cardinality of a periodic task set and the priority levels supported by the underlying hardware systems, multiple tasks are grouped into one class so as to maintain a specific level of confidence in their accuracy. However, such a transformation is achieved at the expense of the loss of schedulability of the original task set. We further investigate the aforementioned problem and report the following contributions: (i) a novel technique for mapping unlimited priority tasks into a reduced number of classes that do not violate the schedulability of the original task set and (ii) an efficient feasibility test that eliminates insufficient points during the feasibility analysis. The theoretical correctness of both contributions is checked through formal verifications. Moreover, the experimental results reveal the superiority of our work over the existing feasibility tests by reducing the number of scheduling points that are needed otherwise.