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Open access

Khalid Mahmood, Syeda Adila Batool, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhary and Zia Ul-Haq

Abstract

Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

Open access

Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq, Sanja Ćavar, Mughal Qayum, Inamullah Khan and Shakeel Ahmad

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the compositional and nutritional potential of methanolic extracts of various parts of Acacia leucophloea Roxb. concerning the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of which limited information is available. Compositional studies indicated carbohydrates as major components in both seed and pods. Despite differences in mineral content among the leaves, pods and seeds, calcium was found in the highest amount and zinc in the lowest. The amino acid profile indicated aspartic acid as the major amino acid and proline as the minor. Among protein fractions, globulin was present in higher amounts than other fractions. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid detected in the oil from both pods and seeds, while g-tocopherol was the major component of the tocopherol observed from same oil. Moreover, significant antioxidant potential was observed from the extracts of all three parts investigated. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that A. leucophloea has a sufficient potential for use as a natural antioxidant agent. Further phytochemical studies will be performed for specification of the biologically active principles.

Open access

Faisal Rehman, Syed Waqas Ahmad, M. Shahzad Zafar, Sajjad Ahmad and Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

Abstract

Desulfurization of Pakistani coal has been carried out through alkaline leaching. During present experimental investigation, the effect of operating parameters like alkali concentration, time, temperature and particle size has also been analyzed, graphically represented and critically discussed. Parametric optimization of leaching process has been carried out by using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed in order to assess the highest level interactions of variables and three way interactions were observed signifi cant. Further, the optimum value of total sulfur removal was observed as 53% when the operatic conditions fi xed at 10% W/V, 60 min, 80oC and 140 mesh for alkaline concentration, leaching time, temperature and particle size, respectively.

Open access

Saima Gul, Sagheer Ahmed, Humaira Gul, Kaneez Fatima Shad, Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq and Diana Badiu

Abstract

Research on antioxidant potential from vegetables is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. However, relatively little work has been done to investigate the antioxidant effect of crude extract and/or different fractions from Brassica rapa L. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of crude extract and its fractions from Brassica rapa L. fruit part was tested for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and total antioxidant status (TAS) in blood samples. Our results reveal the fact that crude extract and each analyzed fraction (i.e. aqueous, ethyl acetate and chloroform) showed a concentration dependent effects on GPx, SOD and TAS in respect with saline solution (0.9% NaCl) used as negative control and vitamin C, as positive control. Therefore, GPx levels showed a highest value in crude extract and chloroform fraction (6981 U/L both at 10 mg/ml), SOD levels showed the same results in aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions (220 U/ml both at 10 mg/ml) and TAS in crude extract and all three fractions (i.e. aqueous, ethyl acetate and chloroform, 1.68 mmol/L at 10 mg/ml for all three fractions) in respect with saline solution (p<0.05). Furthermore, vitamin C showed the highest values on all three analyzed enzymes (8769 U/L for GPx, 223 U/ml for SOD and 1.8 mmol/L for TAS at 100 μg/ml). Our investigations have been proved to be promising in terms of future potential applications of crude extract and its fractions as components in a range of phytochemicals composition and/or different pharmaceutical usage, owing to their antioxidant potential.