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Open access

Khubab Shaker, Yasir Nawab, Muhammad Usman Javaid, Muhammad Umair and Muhammad Maqsood

Abstract

This paper introduces a 3D woven fabric-based approach for the development of pressure switch. A fabric substrate, being elastic and extendable is very useful in addition to its high breaking strength and low cost. The developed resistive-type switch is based on the multilayer interlock 3D fabrics. In the top and bottom layers, certain number of conductive yarns are woven separated by cotton yarns in both transversal and thickness direction. Application of pressure makes the layers of conductive yarn to come in contact, resulting in a short circuit, which may be recorded using multi-meters. Removing the pressure cause the connection points to separate away and it depends on the weave design. Such switch can be used as an on/off switch for usage in security systems, can be sewn into carpets and wearable garments for a number of purposes.

Open access

Usman Muhammad Tang, Zainal Abidin Muchlisin, Henni Syawal and Heri Masjudi

Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to analyze the effect of temperature regimes on stress levels and to determine the suitable water temperature for the domestication of tapah, Wallago leeri Bleeker. A completely randomized method was used in this study, and three levels of water temperature were tested, namely, 27, 29, and 31°C, in seven replicates. A total of 500 experimental fish were collected from the Kampar River, Langgam, Riau, Indonesia, and transported to the Aquaculture Laboratory, Riau University. The fish were reared in 21 tanks at stocking densities of 70-100 fish tank−1. The fish were fed rough fish three times a day at 08:00, 12:00, and 21:00 for 30 days. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 14, and 29, which were analyzed for cortisol, glucose, and plasma protein. Growth and survival rates were recorded at the end of the experiment. ANOVA showed that water temperature had a significant effect on the stress condition, growth, and survival rate of tapah. Lower blood glucose, protein, and cortisol plasma levels were recorded in fish acclimatized at 29°C with values of 14.44 mg dL−1, 5.35 g dL−1, and 6.90 mg mL−1, respectively. Additionally, higher growth performance (32.30 g) and survival rates (100%) were also found in fish reared at 29°C. It was concluded that the best water temperature for the domestication of tapah is 29°C.

Open access

Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque, Madiha Kiran, Usman Waheed and Muhammad Younus

Abstract

Introduction: Mycoplasma gallisepticum is considered the most pathogenic and economically significant avian Mycoplasma spp. for the worldwide poultry industry. The aim of this study was to develop a novel and sensitive real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay based on the amplification of its mgc2 gene sequence for its rapid molecular detection in poultry.

Material and Methods: Blood samples from 300 broiler and layer chickens were screened using a rapid serum agglutination (RSA) test. A real-time LAMP reaction was conducted with seropositive swab samples at 60°C for 90 min in an ESEQuant tube scanner using 6-carboxyfluorescein as the reporting dye.

Results: The sensitivity of the developed assay was 10 fg/μL of DNA. The assay was found 100% specific, showing no cross-reactivity with other avian Mycoplasma species. The proportion found of the positive samples by the real-time LAMP was 58%. In comparison, the RSA was found to detect 52% of positive cases.

Conclusion: The mgc2 real-time LAMP emerged as a more sensitive and accurate method for molecular detection of M. gallisepticum than RSA. Robustness and precision give it applicability as a potential field diagnostic tool for M. gallisepticum control. The study will be beneficial in reducing economic losses that M. gallisepticum inflicts on the poultry industry. This is the first reported development of a real-time LAMP assay based on the amplification of the mgc2 gene sequence using an ESEQuant tube scanner for galline M. gallisepticum detection.

Open access

Zahoor H. Farooqi, Tanzila Sakhawat, Shanza Rauf Khan, Farah Kanwal, Muhammad Usman and Robina Begum

Abstract

Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(NIPAM-co-AAc)] microgels were synthesized by precipitation polymerization. Copper nanoparticles were successfully fabricated inside the microgels by in-situ reduction of copper ions in an aqueous medium. The microgels were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Hydrodynamic radius of P(NIPAM-co-AAc) microgel particles increased with an increase in pH in aqueous medium at 25 °C. Copper-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [Cu-P(NIPAM-co-AAc)] hybrid microgels were used as a catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). Effect of temperature, concentration of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and catalyst dosage on the value of apparent rate constant (kapp) for catalytic reduction of 4-NP in the presence of Cu-P(NIPAM-co-AAc) hybrid microgels were investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It was found that the value of kapp for catalytic reduction of 4-NP in the presence of Cu-P(NIPAM-co-AAc) hybrid microgel catalyst increased with an increase in catalyst dosage, temperature and concentration of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. The results were discussed in terms of diffusion of reactants towards catalyst surface and swelling-deswelling of hybrid microgels.

Open access

Muhammad Tariq Javed, Latif Ahmad, Francesco Feliziani, Paolo Pasquali, Masood Akhtar, Mahmood Usman, Muhammad Irfan, Giulio Severi and Monica Cagiola

Abstract

Background: Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of zoonotic importance. It is disease of high priority all over the world and needs to be investigated in each country.

Objective: This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes and associated risk factors.

Methods: The study was carried out at seven livestock experimental stations in Punjab, Pakistan. Buffaloes were studied by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test.

Result: The results of the study revealed an overall tuberculosis prevalence of 11.3% with 86% of farms having tuberculin positive animals. The frequency analysis revealed significant difference between different groups for age, calving, lactation length, average daily milk and live weight of the buffaloes. Data analysis by T-test also revealed significant difference between means for age, live weight, calving, lactation length and average daily milk between tuberculin positive and negative buffaloes. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analysis revealed significant association of age, live weight, calving, average daily milk and lactation length. Multivariate logistic regression analysis including all the variables in the model revealed significant association of tuberculosis with age, live weight, total milk produced, presence of cattle at the farm, lactation length, and total other animals at the farm.

Conclusion: The prevalence of tuberculosis in buffaloes increases with the increase in age, calving, live weight, milk production and presence of cattle at the farm, while the prevalence decreases with the increase in lactation length.

Open access

Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Zulfiqar Ali Malik, Usman Ali, Amir Shahzad, Tanveer Hussain, Amir Abbas, Muhammad Asad and Zubair Khaliq

Abstract

The objective of this study was to model the physical and mechanical properties of 100% cotton slub yarns commonly used in denim and other casual wear. Statistical models were developed using central composite experimental design of the response surface methodology. Yarn’s linear density, slub thickness, slub length and pause length were used as the key input variables while yarn strength, elongation, coefficient of mass variation, imperfections and hairiness were used as response/output variables. It was concluded that yarn strength and elongation increased with increase in linear density and pause length, and decreased with increase in slub thickness and slub length. Yarn mass variation and total imperfections increased with increase in slub thickness and pause length, whereas yarn imperfections and hairiness decreased with increase in slub length. It was further concluded that due to statistically significant square and interaction effects of some of the input variables, only the quadratic model instead of the linear models can adequately represent the relationship between the input and the output variables. These statistical models will be of great importance for the industrial personnel to improve their productivity and reduce sampling.

Open access

Shahid Mehmood, Kamran Sohail, Muhammad Qasim, Shupeng Xu, Haiyang Geng, Muhammad Usman and Zelle Huma

Abstract

Dirhinus giffardii is an efficient and aggressive pupal parasitoid of tephritid flies, including Bactrocera cucurbitae. Here we report on the various biological aspects of Dirhinus giffardii, mainly host-age preference, potential as well as the survival of this parasitoid from the pupae of different ages and its in vivo release against Bactrocera cucurbitae. The emergence rate of parasitoids was higher in old pupae than in fresh pupae. Similarly, the lifespan and potential of parasitoids emerged from older pupae were higher than those emerged from younger ones. The parasitoids reared on older pupae significantly controlled melon fly infestation in vivo. These findings suggest that parasitoids reared on older pupae of B. cucurbitae have a greater potential regarding fecundity, parasitism performance and survival, as these parasitoids effectively suppressed populations of B. cucurbitae under greenhouse conditions.

Open access

Bilkisu Adamu Aliyu, Habibu Sani, Hamza Usman and Hassan Muhammad

Abstract

This paper is aimed at contributing to the scarce empirical literature on mortgage valuation by ranking the factors that influences mortgage valuation inaccuracy in the Kaduna Residential property market. A quantitative research approach using a survey design was adopted and structured closedended questionnaires were designed and administered to 57 registered Estate Surveying and Valuation (ESV) firms in Kaduna metropolis; 51 out of the 57 administered questionnaires were returned and used for analysis. A simple random sampling technique was employed and the 5-point Likert scale used as the scale of measurement, while causative factors were ranked using the Relative Importance Index (RII). The study analyzed the data using percentages. Findings indicated that data inadequacy, imperfection in the property market and clients’ pressure are the most trending in the absence of a unified valuation approach. The regulatory framework and valuation methodology are least contributory to valuation inaccuracy in the study area. The research will be of interest to practitioners and academic researchers interested in mortgage valuation as a guide for conducting mortgage valuation in the study area.

Open access

Maria Arshad, Abbas Khan, Zahoor H. Farooqi, Muhammad Usman, M. Abdul Waseem, Sayyar Ali Shah and Momin Khan

Abstract

Due to their potential application in various fields of science and technology, the eco-friendly bio-synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) is a growing area for researchers. In this study, we report the green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their characterization by using various techniques. For the preparation of Ag particles, aqueous plant extract of ailanthus altissima was used as a reducing medium for Ag+ ions of silver nitrate to Ag0. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to trace the formation of Ag particles by noting their surface plasmon resonance peaks (400 nm to 440 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to reveal the chemical composition of Ag nanoparticles which were capped by plant extract. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to get the lattice image, morphology and average size of Ag particles. The average size distribution of Ag NPs dispersed in aqueous media was also measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that DLS results are in good agreement with those obtained from SEM. The synthesized particles were then subjected to the antibacterial and antifungal activities by studying them against various species, such as bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and A. parasiticus, A. niger and A. flavus fungi. It was noted from the growth curves of both bacteria and fungi that in the presence of silver nanoparticles they show more in-zone growth as compared to the plant extract.

Open access

Analysis of Some Inner Factors Affecting the Lending Rate and Commercial Bank Behavior

(An Empirical Study Based on the Commercial Banking Sector of Pakistan)

Zulfiqar Ali, Zahid Bashir, Muhammad Usman Arshad, Ahmed Ghazali, Muhammad Asif and Fahad Najeeb Khan

Abstract

This research study aims to investigate the potential inner factors of the lending rate in the commercial banking sector of Pakistan. For this purpose, seven bank-specific explanatory variables (capital adequacy, management efficiency, liquidity, asset quality, investment to asset, loan to asset and deposit to asset ratios) were selected to determine their impact on lending behavior. Panel data techniques were emplyed on secondary data collected from the annual financial reports from a sample of ninteen major commercial banks over a period of 2007 to 2014. For the purpose of analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and panel data techniques for regression analysis such as the fixed effect regression models were considered after conforming to the Hausman specification (1978) test. The findings of this study revealed that only four out of seven explanatory variables (ratio of investment to total assets, deposit to asset, loan to asset and liquidity ratio) have a significant relationship with lending rate. Two of the significant determinants (liquidity ratio and investment to asset ratio) are positively correlated while the remaining two significant explanatory variables (loan to asset ratio and deposit to asset ratio) are found negatively correlated with lending rate. The findings of the study are applicable to the banking sector of Pakistan. The current study ignored the use of macro factors like GDP and inflation, etc. which could be used in future research.