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  • Author: Muhammad Umar x
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The physiological performance of some sunflower genotypes (S.28111, SF0049, Hysun-33, Hysun-39) under salt, drought stress separately and in combination was examined. Salt, drought and a combination of these stresses were applied to plants by gradual increments. The plants were exposed to stress for two weeks. Relative water content, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance, performance index, dark adapted quantum yield and chlorophyll contents were reduced upon salinity and drought stresses. However, when plants were subjected to a combination of these stresses, a greater reduction in all tested attributes was observed. Proline and carotenoid contents in drought stress were elevated compared to salt stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed the highest activity in individual salt and drought stress with less accumulation of H2O2. Combined stress reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes which ultimately decreased the physiological performance of sunflower plants. However, among the tested genotypes, S.28111 and SF0049 were found to be more tolerant to drought, salt and combined stress than both Hysun genotypes. The physiological performance of genotypes against salinity and drought individually and in combination is discussed in detail.


With the increased number of multi-drug formulations, there is a need to develop new methods for simultaneous determinations of drugs. A precise, accurate and reliable liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of paracetamol, thiamine, and pyridoxal phosphate in pharmaceutical formulations. Separation of analytes was carried out with an Agilent Poroshell C18 column. A mixture of ammonium phosphate buffer (pH = 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol in the ratio of 86:7:7 (V/V/V) was used as the mobile phase pumped at a flow rate of 1.8 mL min−1. Detection of all three components, impurities and degradation products was performed at the selected wavelength of 270 nm. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, specificity, precision, accuracy, LOD and LOQ as per ICH guidelines. Linearity of the developed method was found in the range 17.5–30 µg mL−1 for thiamine, 35–60 µg mL−1 for pyridoxal phosphate and 87.5–150 µg mL−1 for paracetamol. The coefficient of determination was ≥ 0.9981 for all three analytes. The proposed HPLC method was found to be simple and reliable for the routine simultaneous analysis of paracetamol, thiamine and pyridoxal phosphate in tablet formulations. Complete separation of analytes in the presence of degradation products indicated selectivity of the method.


The Gwal mélange is mapped on a large scale and is divided into the lithological units such as ultramafic, mafic, volcanic, volcanoclastic rocks, pelagic sediments and ophicarbonates. Petrographically, the mapped rocks are classified as harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite, serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, and andesite. These rocks are quite deformed and altered into the secondary minerals. Harzburgite is a layered mantle peridotite consists of olivine and orthopyroxene while dunite lacks the presence of any pyroxene. Serpentinite is the secondary product after peridotite is the product of post magmatic stages. The mesh structure is usually observed when olivine is completely altered to serpentine. The volcanic rocks are structurally sheeted and pillow type while the volcanoclastic rocks are essentially hyaloclastites associated with pelagic sediments. The Ophicarbonate is composed of serpentinite fragments and carbonate minerals, most probably calcite. Minor to trace amounts of opaque minerals are also present in association with major components. The gabbros may be a fragment of the main crustal rocks and have been formed in a magma chamber by fraction crystallization. The origin of ophicarbonate may be due to gas seeps originated by mantle or as the surficial process where ultramafic rocks and carbonates are mixed through processes of gravity, tectonic crushing and sedimentary reworking. The Gwal mélange may the southern extension of Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The mantle peridotite of the mélange is much like that of the Khanozai peridotite and may represent its detached blocks. Volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks may be the representatives of the uppermost part of ophiolite crust which might have trimmed off from subducting slab and are, now, part of the Gwal accretionary wedge. The mélange may have tectonically emplacement over the Indian platform sediments along with overlying the ophiolite sheet during the Late Cretaceous.


Antimony is a promising material for the fabrication of photodetectors. This study deals with the growth of a photosensitive thin film by the physical vapor deposition (PVD) of antimony onto mica surface in a furnace tube. The geometry of the grown structures was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental diffraction analysis. XRD peaks of the antimony film grown on mica mostly matched with JCPDF Card. The formation of rhombohedral crystal structures in the film was further confirmed by SEM micrographs and chemical composition analysis. The Hall measurements revealed good electrical conductivity of the film with bulk carrier concentration of the order of 1022 Ω·cm-3 and mobility of 9.034 cm2/Vs. The grown film was successfully tested for radiation detection. The photoresponse of the film was evaluated using its current-voltage characteristics. These investigations revealed that the photosensitivity of the antimony film was 20 times higher than that of crystalline germanium.



Dengue is one of the major emerging viral diseases in the world, with dramatic increases in reported cases in the last few decades and annual worldwide occurrence of approximately 390 million infections. It is a highly important mosquito-vectored disease and is a problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The major aim of this study was to clone and express the dengue NS3 gene, in service to its therapeutic importance for the development of stable cell lines.

Material and Methods

Blood samples from dengue fever (DF) patients were collected and subjected to PCR amplification of the NS3 gene of dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2). The NS3 gene was amplified using gene specific primers and cloned in the TA cloning vectors.


The gene was successfully expressed in mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1. The current finding was different from a previously reported DENV-2 strain replicon constructed in different cells, in which the whole genetic material of the virus was used instead of an active protease gene, and which gave a low yield of replicon expressing cells.


Recombinant NS3 could be used to produce an antibody that is possibly helpful for developing a single step diagnostic assay to detect the dengue virus NS3 antigen in sera of dengue patients.


Water is indispensable for human life and without water, life cannot exist on earth. Every person required 33 to 35-gallon water per day for drinking and demotic purpose. But due to lack of quality, inefficient water supply designs, intermixing of sewage water and unlined sewage water system, quality of water is deteriorated specially in recent decades and affecting a number of people. In present study, it was inevitable to design a water supply system for selected area to provide safe water supply design for a small community. For this purpose, a study area was selected named as 253 RB, Samundri Road Faisalabad. The existing water supply system of the village was built 30 years ago with the problems of leaky pipes, mixing of sewerage water with drinking water was causing water-borne diseases like Diarrhea, Cholera, Giardiasis, Typhoid fever, Schistosomiasis. A computer software abbreviated as EPANET (Environment protection agency network) was used to design a water supply system of the area providing input parameters to the software. For this a profiling survey was conducted to determine the length of pipes and the elevation of each junction. The other input parameters such as the diameter of pipes, pipe network map, head losses were provided. Conclusively, EPANET gave a detailed water supply system plan for specific design period. By adopting this design provided by detailed surveys of the area and EPANET will help to control intermixing of sewage water which ultimately improves the quality of water. The new design is based on technology by using modern techniques (Software). It will provide save and continue supply of water to community. It will also reduce the cost of water billing, leakage, decrease the diseases rate and improve the life standard of people’s lives in that area.


Objective: To compare the bimanual hand function in children with and without mirror movements and to find the correlation between the bimanual hand function, functional independence and severity of mirror movements.

Design: Comparative cross sectional study.

Place and duration of the study: The study was conducted in special education schools of Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan, from August 2017 to January 2018.

Patients and Methods: Children suffering from spastic cerebral palsy including both males and females in age groups ranging from 5 to 18 years who were able to make a gross grip were included in the study. Children having low tone, not able to make a gross grip and with any deformity that makes the assessment difficult were excluded. The non probability sampling technique was used. The Woods and Teuber criteria were used to check the severity of the mirror movements and bimanual activities to compare the hand functions. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 11.17±3.69 years. Children who presented with mirror movements had a mean age of 12±3.70 years and those without mirror movements had mean age of 10.72±3.63 years. According to the results of the bimanual task scale, there was no difference in the bimanual hand function of children with mirror movements and without mirror movements (P value >0.05)

Conclusion: According to the results of the bimanual task scale there is no significant difference in the bimanual hand function of children suffering from spastic cerebral palsy, either with with or without mirror movements. However, functional independence was found more in the children suffering from cerebral palsy who presented without mirror movements.


Introduction: Despite the advancements in the field, there is a lack of data when it comes to co-infections in poultry. Therefore, this study was designed to address this issue. Material and Methods: Broiler birds were experimentally infected with E. coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain, alone or in combination. The experimental groups were negative control. Results: The infected birds showed most severe clinical signs in E. coli+LPAI group along with a significant decrease in weight and enhanced macroscopic and microscopic pathological lesions. The survival rate was 60%, 84%, and 100% in birds inoculated with E. coli+LPAI, E. coli, and LPAI virus alone, respectively. The results showed that experimental co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 strain of LPAI virus increased the severity of clinical signs, mortality rate, and gross lesions. The HI titre against LPAI virus infection in the co-infected group was significantly higher than the HI titre of LPAI group, which may indicate that E. coli may promote propagation of H9N2 LPAI virus by alteration of immune response. Conclusion: The present study revealed that co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 LPAI virus caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects and indicates the role of both pathogens as complicating factors in poultry infections.


The paper examines the politics of security deployment by the Federal Government of Nigeria to Jos, metropolis. A cross-sectional study was conducted and Public Opinion Theory adopted. Methodologically, mixed methods of data collection were conducted that involved the administration of 377 questionnaires to adult respondents, six In-Depth Interviews with religious and community leaders while three Key Informant Interviews with security personnel working with Special Task Force. The survey reveals that, the deployment of Mobile Police from 2001-2010 and the formation of Special Task Force in 2010 has generated mixed reactions and divergent perceptions among the residents of Jos metropolis. Majority of the ethnic groups that are predominantly Christians were more contented with the deployment of the Mobile Police whereas ethnic groups that are dominantly Muslims questioned the neutrality, capability, performance and strength of the Nigerian Police Force in managing the crises. The study recommends that, security personnel should display high degree of neutrality in order to earn the confidence of the residents and change their perceptions.