Polyester is a popular class of material used in material engineering. With its 0.4% moisture regain, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is classified as highly hydrophobic, which originates from its lack of polar groups on its backbone. This study used a parallel-plate nonthermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge system operating at medium pressure in dry air and nitrogen (N2) to alter the surface properties of PET fabrics to increase their hydrophilic capabilities. Water contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to analyze any effect from the plasma treatment. The wettability analysis revealed a reduction in the contact angle of more than 80% within 5 min for both discharges. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed no microscopic damage to the fiber structure, guaranteeing that the fabrics’ structural integrity was preserved after treatment. AFM analysis showed an increase in the nanometer roughness, which was considered beneficial because it increased the total surface area, further increasing the hydrophilic capacity. XPS analysis revealed a sharp increase in the presence of polar functional groups, indicating that the induced surface changes are mostly chemical in nature. Comparing that of untreated fabrics to treated fabrics, a Increase in water absorption capacity was observed for air-treated and N2-treated fabrics, when these fabrics were used immediately after plasma exposure.
The present research describes a method of combining geostatistical analysis with geophysical inversion of electrical resistivity data conducted in Pakhli Plain, northwestern Himalayas, Pakistan. The raw data has been collected from the Technical Report VII-I on Ground Water Resources in Pakhli Plain, Mansehra District. Subsequently, the data has been deciphered and broadened from one dimensional resistivity data into a 2D model that can be entirely visualized and deduced in a spatial sense. Interpretation and calibration of the electrical resistivity curves with the lithologies and geophysical logs of boreholes suggests possible identification of distinctive sedimentary accumulations occurring within the Pakhli Plain. The 2D and 3D gridding and visualization is imperative to map the extents of the alluvial deposits within the Pakhli Plain formed during the periods of extreme tectonic activity. The coarser sediments are associated with lower levels of resistivity as measured in the electrical surveys, whereas the finer sediments exhibit characteristically lower resistivities. Therefore, the zones of low and high resistivity values are indicative of particles associated with coarser and finer sediments, respectively. It has been mentioned that the Pakhli Plain has remained a lacustrine zone during some time in the geological past as indicated by low resistivities representing finer sediments in the middle of the Plain. Consequently, the overall transmissivity of the sediments is low, which imply poor conditions for commercial groundwater production in the Pakhli Plain. Moreover, high resistivity zones of coarse material could be further investigated for groundwater potential areas. In particular, the prime objectives of the present study include 3D modeling of underground resistivity and its exploration in terms of groundwater potential on the basis of distribution of low resistivity zones.
Background: Bovine tuberculosis is a significant disease in animals and monitoring is important in preventing spread and transmission to man.
Objective: We identified risk factors for a positive tuberculin test (SCCIT) in cattle at Faisalabad and Okara, Pakistan.
Methods: Fifty-nine herds (230 cattle) at Faisalabad and 38 (291 cattle) at Okara were included in the study. The risk factors studied included area, farm, nature of villages, location, total cattle, presence of other animals, other species (buffalo, small ruminants, equines or pets), age, sex, live weight, calving number, lactation length, lactation status, total milk produced, and per day milk.
Results: Our results showed an association between age, live weight, calving number, lactation length, and total number of cattle at the farm with positive tuberculin test. The analysis of variance technique also showed association of all of these factors except lactation length with positive skin test. The results of logistic regression analysis also suggested an association of age, live weight, calving number, total animals at the farm, and total cattle at the farm with positive SCCIT test in cattle.
Conclusions: The prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle is around 9% at herd level and 2% at animal level with stronger risk factors being live weight, total animals, and total cattle at the farm.
A process model for turbulent pressurized circulating fluidized-bed coal gasifier is created using ASPEN PLUS software. Both hydrodynamic and reaction kinetics parameter are taken into account, whose expressions for fluidized bed are adopted from the literature. Various reactor models available in ASPEN PLUS with calculator as External Block are nested to solve hydrodynamics and kinetics. Multiple operational parameters for a pilot-plant circulating fluidized-bed coal gasifier are used to demonstrate the effects on coal gasification characteristics. This paper presents detailed information regarding the simulation model, including robust analysis of the effect of stoichiometric ratio, steam to coal ratio, gasification temperature and gasification agent temperature. It is observed that, with the increase in the flow rate of air, the components hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane reduce, which causes the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of synthesis gas (Syn. Gas) to decrease by about 29.3%, while increment in the steam flow rate shows a minute increase in heating value of only 0.8%. Stoichiometric ratio has a direct relationship to carbon conversion efficiency and carbon dioxide production. Increasing the steam to coal ratio boosts the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and causes a drop in both carbon dioxide concentration and the conversion efficiency of carbon. High gasifying agent temperature is desired because of high concentration of CO and H2, increasing carbon conversion and LHV. A high gasifying agent temperature is the major factor that affects the coal gasification to enhance H2 and CO production rapidly along with other gasification characteristics.
Objective: To compare the bimanual hand function in children with and without mirror movements and to find the correlation between the bimanual hand function, functional independence and severity of mirror movements.
Design: Comparative cross sectional study.
Place and duration of the study: The study was conducted in special education schools of Lahore and Islamabad, Pakistan, from August 2017 to January 2018.
Patients and Methods: Children suffering from spastic cerebral palsy including both males and females in age groups ranging from 5 to 18 years who were able to make a gross grip were included in the study. Children having low tone, not able to make a gross grip and with any deformity that makes the assessment difficult were excluded. The non probability sampling technique was used. The Woods and Teuber criteria were used to check the severity of the mirror movements and bimanual activities to compare the hand functions. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.
Results: The mean age of the participants was 11.17±3.69 years. Children who presented with mirror movements had a mean age of 12±3.70 years and those without mirror movements had mean age of 10.72±3.63 years. According to the results of the bimanual task scale, there was no difference in the bimanual hand function of children with mirror movements and without mirror movements (P value >0.05)
Conclusion: According to the results of the bimanual task scale there is no significant difference in the bimanual hand function of children suffering from spastic cerebral palsy, either with with or without mirror movements. However, functional independence was found more in the children suffering from cerebral palsy who presented without mirror movements.
Introduction: Despite the advancements in the field, there is a lack of data when it comes to co-infections in poultry. Therefore, this study was designed to address this issue. Material and Methods: Broiler birds were experimentally infected with E. coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain, alone or in combination. The experimental groups were negative control. Results: The infected birds showed most severe clinical signs in E. coli+LPAI group along with a significant decrease in weight and enhanced macroscopic and microscopic pathological lesions. The survival rate was 60%, 84%, and 100% in birds inoculated with E. coli+LPAI, E. coli, and LPAI virus alone, respectively. The results showed that experimental co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 strain of LPAI virus increased the severity of clinical signs, mortality rate, and gross lesions. The HI titre against LPAI virus infection in the co-infected group was significantly higher than the HI titre of LPAI group, which may indicate that E. coli may promote propagation of H9N2 LPAI virus by alteration of immune response. Conclusion: The present study revealed that co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 LPAI virus caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects and indicates the role of both pathogens as complicating factors in poultry infections.
Dirhinus giffardii is an efficient and aggressive pupal parasitoid of tephritid flies, including Bactrocera cucurbitae. Here we report on the various biological aspects of Dirhinus giffardii, mainly host-age preference, potential as well as the survival of this parasitoid from the pupae of different ages and its in vivo release against Bactrocera cucurbitae. The emergence rate of parasitoids was higher in old pupae than in fresh pupae. Similarly, the lifespan and potential of parasitoids emerged from older pupae were higher than those emerged from younger ones. The parasitoids reared on older pupae significantly controlled melon fly infestation in vivo. These findings suggest that parasitoids reared on older pupae of B. cucurbitae have a greater potential regarding fecundity, parasitism performance and survival, as these parasitoids effectively suppressed populations of B. cucurbitae under greenhouse conditions.
The paper investigates the effects of weave structure and fabric thread density on the comfort and mechanical properties of various test fabrics woven from polyester/cotton yarns. Three different weave structures, that is, 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill and 3/1 twill, and three different fabric densities were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, overall moisture management capacity, tensile strength and tear strength of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and fabric density on the response variables. The results of fabric samples were analysed in Minitab statistical software. The coefficients of determinations (R-sq values) of the regression equations show a good predictive ability of the developed statistical models. The findings of the study may be helpful in deciding appropriate manufacturing specifications of woven fabrics to attain specific comfort and mechanical properties.