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Othman A. Al Hanbali, Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Muhammad Sarfraz, Mosab Arafat, Shakeel Ijaz and Abdul Hameed

Abstract

Use of transdermal patches can evade many issues associated with oral drug delivery, such as first-pass hepatic metabolism, enzymatic digestion attack, drug hydrolysis and degradation in acidic media, drug fluctuations, and gastrointestinal irritation. This article reviews various transdermal patches available in the market, types, structural components, polymer role, and the required assessment tools. Although transdermal patches have medical applications for smoking cessation, pain relief, osteoporosis, contraception, motion sickness, angina pectoris, and cardiac disorders, advances in formulation development are ongoing to make transdermal patches capable of delivering more challenging drugs. Transdermal patches can be tailored and developed according to the physicochemical properties of active and inactive components, and applicability for long-term use. Therefore, a number of chemical approaches and physical techniques for transdermal patch development are under investigation.

Open access

Sarfraz Nawaz Malik, Mohsan Raza, Muhammad Arif and Saqib Hussain

Abstract

In this paper, the authors determine the coefficient bounds for functions in certain subclasses of analytic functions related with the conic regions, which are introduced by using the concept of bounded boundary and bounded radius rotations. The effect of certain integral operator on these classes has also been examined.

Open access

Muhammad Saeed, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Muhammad Arif, Mohamed M. El-Hindawy, Adel I. Attia, Khalid M. Mahrose, Itrat Bashir, Farman A. Siyal, Muhammad A. Arain, Sarfraz Ali Fazlani, Khawar Hayat, Chao Sun and Ahmed E. Noreldin

Abstract

The present investigation aimed to study the effect of the partial replacement of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) instead of soybean meal (SBM) with or without vitamin E supplementation in laying hen diet on egg quality criteria, egg analysis, blood chemistry and productive performance traits. A 4×2 factorial design experiment was carried out involving four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 25, 50 and 75%) and two levels of vitamin E (0 and 250 mg /kg diet) through 22-42 weeks of age. No significant differences were noticed between the control and 25 or 50% DDGS substitution in the percentage of eggs produced and egg output. The fewest number of produced eggs and the lightest egg output were observed in 75% DDGS group. Yolk index, shell percentage, and Haugh unit scores were affected (P>0.01) by DDGS levels. Albumin percentage showed increase (P>0.01) in vitamin E treated groups. The impact of the combination of DDGS and vitamin E was significant (P>0.01) on all egg quality traits excepting shell percentage. The 75% DDGS diet gave the highest values of egg nutrients. Vitamin E had a positive effect on egg crude protein, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract which increased by 10.39, 10.28 and 7.85%, respectively. The combination of vitamin E addition and DDGS levels was highly significant (P>0.01) on all egg nutrients. Hens fed the 50% DDGS diet had more concentrations of lipids profile in their blood than those fed control and other DDGS diets. All serum lipid profile inclined to increase due to vitamin E supplementation. The interaction between DDGS and vitamin E had significant (P>0.05 or 0.01) influence on all serum metabolites excepting calcium. It could be concluded that vitamin E could enhance nutrient content of eggs and preserve blood lipids from lipid peroxidation. The interaction between 75% DDGS replaced SBM with 200 mg vitamin E/kg diet accomplished the best results regarding nutrient content of eggs.