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Naureen Shehzadi, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Islam, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Muhammad Tanveer Khan, Muhammad Salman, Sabahat Zahra Siddiqui, Aziz-Ur Rehman and Muhammad Athar Abbasi

Abstract

The study describes the development and preliminary validation of a simple reverse-phase chromatographic method for determination of a novel drug candidate, 5-[(4-chlorophenoxy) methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (OXCPM), in bulk and stressed solution, in order to find out the intrinsic stability behavior of the compound. Isocratic elution was carried out at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1 through a Promosil C18 column maintained at 25 °C, using the mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and aqueous o-H3PO4 (pH 2.67) (1:1, V/V). Detection was performed at 258 nm. The response of the detector was linear in a concentration range of 1.25-50.00 μg mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9996 ± 0.0001. Cumulative intra-day, inter-day and inter-instrument accuracy (99.5 ± 1.0, 100.2 ± 1.0 and 100.3 ± 0.4 %, resp.) with RSD less than 5 % indicated that the method was accurate and precise. The resolution and selectivity factor (>2 and >1, resp.), particularly in copper metal- and dry-heat-stress solutions, depicted the selectivity of the method. OXCPM remained stable under hydrolytic (acidic and neutral pH, ≤ 37 °C), photolytic and moist heat stress conditions. Under alkaline conditions (hydrolytic and photolytic), polar products were formed that eluted very fast through the column (tR < 3.75 min). At room temperature, the compound was susceptible to oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and transition metals. The ionogram of most of the stress solutions indicated the presence of a product having m/z 256, which might be a result of N- or Smethylation or -SH oxidation. The results of the study indicate that the method is selective, sensitive and suitable to be used for determination of OXCPM in bulk and under stress conditions.

Open access

Muhammad Salman Khan, Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Gold electrodes are often not suitable for dopamine measurements as dopamine creates a non-conducting polymer layer on the surface of the electrodes, which leads to increased amount of electrode passivity with the gradual increase in voltammograms measurement. This work presents the impedance spectroscopy and cyclic-voltammetry comparative study for dopamine detection with two modifications for the surface of Au electrodes; cysteamine and mercaptopropionic acid for thermally bonded and ultrasonically welded microfluidic chips, respectively. The effects of optimized tubing selection, bonding techniques, and cleaning methods of the devices with KOH solution played crucial role for improvements in dopamine detection, which are observed in the results. Furthermore, comparison for the modification with unmodified chips, and finding the unknown concentration of dopamine solution using flow injection techniques, is also illustrated.

Open access

Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Although liquid-liquid extraction methods are currently being applied in many areas such as analytical chemistry, biochemical engineering, biochemistry, and biological applications, accessibility and usability of microfluidics in practical daily life fields are still bounded. Suspended microfluidic devices have the potential to lessen the obstacles, but the absence of robust design rules have hampered their usage. The primary objective of this work is to design and fabricate a microfluidic device to quantitatively monitor the drug uptake of cancer cells. Liquid-liquid extraction is used to quantify the drug uptake. In this research work, designs and simulations of two different microfluidic devices for carrying out multiplex solution experiments are proposed to test their efficiency. These simplified miniaturized chips would serve as suspended microfluidic metabolites extraction platform as it allows extracting the metabolites produced from the cancer cells as a result of applying a specific drug type for a certain period of time. These devices would be fabricated by making polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds from the negative master mold using soft lithography. Furthermore, it can leverage to provide versatile functionalities like high throughput screening, cancer cell invasions, protein purification, and small molecules extractions. As per previous studies, PDMS has been depicting better stability with various solvents and has proved to be a reliable and cost effective material to be used for fabrication, though the sensitivity of the chip would be analyzed by cross contamination and of solvents within the channels of device.