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Open access

Muhammad Asghar, Mirza Muhammad Qadeer Baig, Muhammad Afzal and Naeem Faisal

Abstract

The efficacy of five insecticides containing a.i. bifenthrin, dimethoate, spinosad, spinetoram and chlorfenapyr was evaluated following RCBD against Thrips tabaci in farmer’s field for two consecutive years. The data were recorded before and after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 days of spraying. The results showed that all the insecticides reduced thrips populations compared to controls. However, the maximum reduction in thrips population and highest onion bulb yield (34.07 t/ha) was obtained with dimethoate 40EC followed by bifenthrin 10EC (33.14 t/ha). The minimum onion bulb yield (25.71 t/ha) was obtained in the control, where no insecticide was applied against thrips. If onion thrips are not controlled, the damage they cause can reduce bulb yields by 9-25%. The highest incremental return over the control (Rs.83, 600/ha), net income (Rs.82, 913/ha) and maximum cost benefit ratio were also obtained in the treatment with dimethoate 40EC.

Open access

Jalaluddin Akbar, Syed Tanveer Shah, Muhammad Naeem Khan and Ahmad Naeem

Abstract

Natural landscape is an important resource for mountainous regions and play crucial role in tourism development. Tourism play a key role in economic development of a country. Developing tourist areas is the key to meet the expectations of mountain inhabitants, tourists, and the general public outside of mountainous areas. In order to know tourist perception, problems, and role of landscape & horticulture plants in the field of tourism. A research study entitled “Role of facilities available and un-available in attracting of tourist in swat valley Pakistan “The data was collected from the respondents through a questionnaire survey and analyzed using percentages, frequencies and Chi-square test (where applicable). The analyzed data revealed that most of the respondent (55 %) considered natural green environment as a reason for their visit and 67 % respondents wanted to visit with their friends and were satisfied with the tourist area, respectively. Most of the respondent (39 %) observed throwing of surplus food as major waste materials which turned the beautiful green environment into unattractive environment. Most of the visitors (52 %) dislike un-cleanliness of the locality, 74% respondents felt ill effect due to deforestation.53 % tourist disagree with the current maintenance of the locality by tourism department. The most missed facilities were non availability of dustbins and children playing areas. 75 % respondents agreed with the fact that most of the people (local inhabitants as well as tourist) were unaware with regard to maintenance activities of the area 15.7 % respondent agreed that road system should be improved to access most of the greenery in the locality, respectively to aware local people and tourist regarding maintenance of the locality will improve tourism in Swat valley. The studies need to be develop for the improvement of existing as well as artificial landscape of the tourist area (Kalam and Malamjabba) of Swat valley.

Open access

Ibrar Rafique, Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Asif Mir and Muhammad Naeem

Abstract

Background and aims: Maturity Onset diabetes in Young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant disease and according to an estimate, the MODY cases are 2% of all the diabetic cases. The objective was to review the common types of MODY reported in literature in context to their geographical areas. Material and method: For literature search, PubMed data base was used. The key word was “Maturity onset diabetes of the young”. The articles were reviewed by titles and if found relevant, the abstract and full article (if available) were retrieved. The studies that were published in English, presented original data and describe type of MODY were included. The information related to author, year of publication and type of MODY was extracted in excel sheet. Results: A total of 1135 studies resulted which were reviewed, and 206 articles were finally selected. The studies were grouped according to the regions i.e. Asia, Europe, America, Africa and Australia & Oceania. The MODY 2 was most prevalent in regions i.e. Asia, Europe, America and Australia & Oceania followed by MODY 3. When analysed according to countries, MODY 2 was found prevalent in India, Korea, UK, Italy, Spain, Czech Republic, Canada and Brazil while MODY 3 was common in Japan, China, France Norway and Germany. Conclusion: The MODY 2 was most common. The data from south Asian countries including Pakistan is lacking. As there is a huge burden of diabetes in the country so there is a dire need to do large scale studies on MODY in the country.

Open access

Muttalip Gündoğdu, Sezai Ercisli, Ihsan Canan, Erdal Orman, Muhammad Sameeullah, Muhammad Naeem and Rayda Ben Ayed

Abstract

Strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo L.) are naturally grown in particular Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey with great diversity due to continuous seed propagation for centuries. The trees differ in terms of most of the horticultural characteristics. We investigated the phenolic compounds and the biochemical and pomological characteristics of the fruits of eight strawberry tree selections naturally grown in the western part of Turkey. Significant differences were found among the genotypes in terms of their phenolic compounds and their biochemical and pomological characteristics. Among soluble sugars, fructose (11.63 g 100 g−1) was the dominant sugar, followed by glucose (6.10 g 100 g−1) and sucrose (1.44 g 100 g−1) for all the genotypes. Positive correlation was found between fruit weight and soluble sugar content. Malic acid was the major organic acid (0.67-2.33 g 100 g−1), and the second major organic acid in strawberry tree fruits was citric acid (0.25-0.87 g 100 g−1). Vitamin C content was an average of 56.22 g 100 g−1 for the eight genotypes. Among phenolic compounds, gallic acid was dominant (1.62-7.29 mg 100 g−1), followed by chlorogenic acid (1.23-3.14 mg 100 g−1), on an average basis.

Open access

Muhammd Naeem Khan, Khurram Shahzad, Ansar Chatta, Muhammad Sohail, Marina Piria and Tomislav Treer

Abstract

Common carp Cyprinus carpio was introduced from Thailand to Pakistan in 1964 for the purpose of aquaculture. Due to its high tolerance to temperature and turbidity, and prolific pond breeding habit, it was established promptly in most of natural inland waters, including rivers, lakes, streams, canals, wetlands and even village ponds of the country. Although common carp became one of the most abundant cyprinid species in inland waters and important food fish in Pakistan, its impact is not well documented. Fish farming of common carp has been carried out in Pakistan since 1970; initially it grew slowly but now it is playing an important role in the economy of the country by employing more than 400,000 people. Nowadays, farming of freshwater carps is present throughout Pakistan, especially in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. There is a huge potential in common carp farming and it could help increase the livelihood of people and gross domestic product (GDP) of the country as well. Still, there is a need to improve the fish farming practice to meet the world-class demands that could only be possible by the keen interest of policy makers and stake holders with better management.

Open access

Abdul Qudair Baig, Muhammad Naeem and Wei Gao

Abstract

Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G) and edge set E(G). Recently, the Revan vertex degree concept is defined in Chemical Graph Theory. The first and second Revan indices of G are defined as R 1(G) = uvE[rG(u) + rG(v)] and R 2(G) = uvE[rG(u)rG(v)], where uv means that the vertex u and edge v are adjacent in G. The first and second hyper-Revan indices of G are defined as HR 1(G) = uvE[rG(u) + rG(v)]2 and HR 2(G) = uvE[rG(u)rG(v)]2. In this paper, we compute the first and second kind of Revan and hyper-Revan indices for the octahedral and icosahedral networks.

Open access

Farkhanda Yasmin, Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Idrees, Wasim Shahzad, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Kiran Aqil, Nadia Mukhtar, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor, Naeem Akhtar and Sajid Umar

Abstract

Introduction: Dengue is one of the major emerging viral diseases in the world, with dramatic increases in reported cases in the last few decades and annual worldwide occurrence of approximately 390 million infections. It is a highly important mosquito-vectored disease and is a problem in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The major aim of this study was to clone and express the dengue NS3 gene, in service to its therapeutic importance for the development of stable cell lines.

Material and Methods: Blood samples from dengue fever (DF) patients were collected and subjected to PCR amplification of the NS3 gene of dengue virus serotype-2 (DENV-2). The NS3 gene was amplified using gene specific primers and cloned in the TA cloning vectors.

Results: The gene was successfully expressed in mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1. The current finding was different from a previously reported DENV-2 strain replicon constructed in different cells, in which the whole genetic material of the virus was used instead of an active protease gene, and which gave a low yield of replicon expressing cells.

Conclusion: Recombinant NS3 could be used to produce an antibody that is possibly helpful for developing a single step diagnostic assay to detect the dengue virus NS3 antigen in sera of dengue patients.

Open access

Syed Mansoor Ali, W. A. Farooq, M. R. Baig, M.A. Shar, M. Atif, S. S. Alghamdi, M. S. Algarawi, Naeem Ur-Rehman and Muhammad Hammad Aziz

Abstract

We have investigated the influence of Ag doping on zinc oxide thin films. Pure and Ag doped, preferentially oriented transparent zinc oxide thin films were prepared by sol gel technique on a glass substrate using diethyl amine as a stabilizer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films with hexagonal wurtzite type structure were polycrystalline in nature with a preferred grain orientation in the 101 direction. The crystallite sizes decreased from 34 nm to 27 nm after silver doping. Both photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements showed that the band gap increased after the Ag doping. The structure and optical characterization studies clearly indicated the incorporation of Ag in ZnO. Hence, the observed increase in the optical band gap and decrease in crystallite size can be directly attributed to the effect of Ag ion incorporation into the ZnO lattice.