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Asif Riaz, Syed Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Asif and Kamran Akhtar

Abstract

The paper analyses the geological conditions of study area, rock mass strength parameters with suitable support structure propositions for the under construction Nahakki tunnel in Mohmand Agency. Geology of study area varies from mica schist to graphitic marble/phyllite to schist. The tunnel ground is classified and divided by the empisical classification systems like Rock mass rating (RMR), Q system (Q), and Geological strength index (GSI). Tunnel support measures are selected based on RMR and Q classification systems. Computer based finite element analysis (FEM) has given yet another dimension to design approach. FEM software Phase2 version 7.017 is used to calculate and compare deformations and stress concentrations around the tunnel, analyze interaction of support systems with excavated rock masses and verify and check the validity of empirically determined excavation and support systems.

Open access

Muhammad Umar, Peter Betts, Malik Muhammad Saud Khan, Muhammad Amjad Sabir, Muhammad Farooq, Asif Zeb, Umair Khan Jadoon and Shoaib Ali

Abstract

Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of Late Neoproterozoic successions in Lesser Himalaya are combined herein with palaeogeographical considerations and comparisons with equivalent successions in India and South China. The succession starts with the Hazara Formation, which contains complete and incomplete Bouma sequences suggesting its deposition in deep marine turbidite settings. The overlying Tanawal Formation, rich in massive sandstone, shale and siltstone, was deposited in shallow marine conditions, as indicated by the presence of parallel lamination, large scale tabular, trough cross- and hummocky cross-stratifications. The Tanawal Formation facies shift laterally from proximal (south-southeast) to distal (north-northwest). The glaciogenic Tanaki Boulder Bed, overlying the Tanawal Formation, was deposited during the Maronian glaciation. It is equivalent to the Blaini Formation of India, and to the Sinian diamictites of South China. The Abbottabad Formation of Cambrian age overlies the Tanaki Boulder Bed, and is composed of dolomite, chert nodules and phosphate-rich packages; similar successions are documented in India and South China at the same stratigraphical interval. The similarities of the Neoproterozoic successions of Lesser Himalaya (both in Pakistan and India) and South China suggests their possible proximity during the break-up of Rodinia and the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent.

Open access

Ibrar Rafique, Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Asif Mir and Muhammad Naeem

Abstract

Background and aims: Maturity Onset diabetes in Young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant disease and according to an estimate, the MODY cases are 2% of all the diabetic cases. The objective was to review the common types of MODY reported in literature in context to their geographical areas. Material and method: For literature search, PubMed data base was used. The key word was “Maturity onset diabetes of the young”. The articles were reviewed by titles and if found relevant, the abstract and full article (if available) were retrieved. The studies that were published in English, presented original data and describe type of MODY were included. The information related to author, year of publication and type of MODY was extracted in excel sheet. Results: A total of 1135 studies resulted which were reviewed, and 206 articles were finally selected. The studies were grouped according to the regions i.e. Asia, Europe, America, Africa and Australia & Oceania. The MODY 2 was most prevalent in regions i.e. Asia, Europe, America and Australia & Oceania followed by MODY 3. When analysed according to countries, MODY 2 was found prevalent in India, Korea, UK, Italy, Spain, Czech Republic, Canada and Brazil while MODY 3 was common in Japan, China, France Norway and Germany. Conclusion: The MODY 2 was most common. The data from south Asian countries including Pakistan is lacking. As there is a huge burden of diabetes in the country so there is a dire need to do large scale studies on MODY in the country.

Open access

Umair Ahmed, Saeed Abbas Shah, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Muzafar Hussain Shah and Faiz Muhammad Khuwaja

Abstract

The objective of the present article is to highlight the concept of innovation performance, its importance and the different elements that could potentially enhance it within an organization. Through critical appraisal of the literature, the paper has attempted to shed light on how innovation performance is essentially important for businesses to thrive in the current global economy via focusing on prospects like corporate entrepreneurship and employee engagement. The review has concluded that Innovation and more importantly, employee performance towards bringing innovative is critical for businesses. Corporate entrepreneurship is an evolving concept that talks about nurturing and establishing such an environment that supports and motivates people to work with initiative mindset, indulging in creativity and innovation within the organization. Notably, past empirical evidence has underscored employee engagement to be highly significant in enhancing performance focused outcomes. The paper had attempted to establish how corporate entrepreneurship can enhance innovation performance within an organization. Importantly, the paper has also outlined pivotal role of employee engagement as a potential moderator to enrich this relationship. The paper has forwarded research model highlighting severe paucity of research and mature significance for fostering innovation performance at the workplace.

Open access

Muhammad Jawwad Saif, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Naveed, Khalid Mahmood Zia, Waheed -uz- Zaman, Muhammad Kaleem Khosa and Muhammad Asghar Jamal

Abstract

Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

Open access

Shahid Jaleel, Muhammad Younus, Asif Idrees, Muhammad Arshad, Aman Ullah Khan, Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque, Muhammad Irfan Zaheer, Muhammad Tanweer, Farhan Towakal, Munibullah, Muhammad Yasin Tipu, Muhammad Luqman Sohail and Sajid Umar

Abstract

Introduction: Despite the advancements in the field, there is a lack of data when it comes to co-infections in poultry. Therefore, this study was designed to address this issue. Material and Methods: Broiler birds were experimentally infected with E. coli (O78) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain, alone or in combination. The experimental groups were negative control. Results: The infected birds showed most severe clinical signs in E. coli+LPAI group along with a significant decrease in weight and enhanced macroscopic and microscopic pathological lesions. The survival rate was 60%, 84%, and 100% in birds inoculated with E. coli+LPAI, E. coli, and LPAI virus alone, respectively. The results showed that experimental co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 strain of LPAI virus increased the severity of clinical signs, mortality rate, and gross lesions. The HI titre against LPAI virus infection in the co-infected group was significantly higher than the HI titre of LPAI group, which may indicate that E. coli may promote propagation of H9N2 LPAI virus by alteration of immune response. Conclusion: The present study revealed that co-infection with E. coli and H9N2 LPAI virus caused more serious synergistic pathogenic effects and indicates the role of both pathogens as complicating factors in poultry infections.

Open access

Muhammad Salman Khan, Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh and Ahmet Tekin

Open access

Muhammad Rizwan Rashid Rana, Asif Nawaz and Javed Iqbal

Abstract

Sentiment classification is the process of exploring sentiments, emotions, ideas and thoughts in the sentences which are expressed by the people. Sentiment classification allows us to judge the sentiments and feelings of the peoples by analyzing their reviews, social media comments etc. about all the aspects. Machine learning techniques and Lexicon based techniques are being mostly used in sentiment classification to predict sentiments from customers reviews and comments. Machine learning techniques includes several learning algorithms to judge the sentiments i.e Navie bayes, support vector machines etc whereas Lexicon Based techniques includes SentiWordnet, Wordnet etc. The main target of this survey is to give nearly full image of sentiment classification techniques. Survey paper provides the comprehensive overview of recent and past research on sentiment classification and provides excellent research queries and approaches for future aspects

Open access

Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Although liquid-liquid extraction methods are currently being applied in many areas such as analytical chemistry, biochemical engineering, biochemistry, and biological applications, accessibility and usability of microfluidics in practical daily life fields are still bounded. Suspended microfluidic devices have the potential to lessen the obstacles, but the absence of robust design rules have hampered their usage. The primary objective of this work is to design and fabricate a microfluidic device to quantitatively monitor the drug uptake of cancer cells. Liquid-liquid extraction is used to quantify the drug uptake. In this research work, designs and simulations of two different microfluidic devices for carrying out multiplex solution experiments are proposed to test their efficiency. These simplified miniaturized chips would serve as suspended microfluidic metabolites extraction platform as it allows extracting the metabolites produced from the cancer cells as a result of applying a specific drug type for a certain period of time. These devices would be fabricated by making polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds from the negative master mold using soft lithography. Furthermore, it can leverage to provide versatile functionalities like high throughput screening, cancer cell invasions, protein purification, and small molecules extractions. As per previous studies, PDMS has been depicting better stability with various solvents and has proved to be a reliable and cost effective material to be used for fabrication, though the sensitivity of the chip would be analyzed by cross contamination and of solvents within the channels of device.

Open access

Muhammad Salman Khan, Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh and Ahmet Tekin

Abstract

Gold electrodes are often not suitable for dopamine measurements as dopamine creates a non-conducting polymer layer on the surface of the electrodes, which leads to increased amount of electrode passivity with the gradual increase in voltammograms measurement. This work presents the impedance spectroscopy and cyclic-voltammetry comparative study for dopamine detection with two modifications for the surface of Au electrodes; cysteamine and mercaptopropionic acid for thermally bonded and ultrasonically welded microfluidic chips, respectively. The effects of optimized tubing selection, bonding techniques, and cleaning methods of the devices with KOH solution played crucial role for improvements in dopamine detection, which are observed in the results. Furthermore, comparison for the modification with unmodified chips, and finding the unknown concentration of dopamine solution using flow injection techniques, is also illustrated.