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Open access

Muhammad Rehan Masoom, Md Nahid Alam and Rubaiyat Bin Arif

Abstract

The procedural revolution of technology making people more and more linked to virtual based lives, and providing an outline to live in online-based curriculums. However, not all the nations have the same level of access and equal opportunities to grip the fruit of communication technology, hence the social presence in cyberspace suppose to differ from nations to nations. The study tends to explore the facets of technology-mediated text-based correspondences of the young generation, who often apt to use their own technologically advanced telecommunication devices. To conceptualize the qualitative aspect of the study into quantitative findings, the key assumptions are tested in each step of the factor analysis process. Based on the scanned cases of the survey, the study concludes that the young generation of the nations, where technological advancement is yet to flourish is less formal, more emotionally sensitive and more open about their state of the mind compared to the technologically advanced nations.

Open access

Ibrar Rafique, Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Asif Mir and Muhammad Naeem

Abstract

Background and aims: Maturity Onset diabetes in Young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant disease and according to an estimate, the MODY cases are 2% of all the diabetic cases. The objective was to review the common types of MODY reported in literature in context to their geographical areas. Material and method: For literature search, PubMed data base was used. The key word was “Maturity onset diabetes of the young”. The articles were reviewed by titles and if found relevant, the abstract and full article (if available) were retrieved. The studies that were published in English, presented original data and describe type of MODY were included. The information related to author, year of publication and type of MODY was extracted in excel sheet. Results: A total of 1135 studies resulted which were reviewed, and 206 articles were finally selected. The studies were grouped according to the regions i.e. Asia, Europe, America, Africa and Australia & Oceania. The MODY 2 was most prevalent in regions i.e. Asia, Europe, America and Australia & Oceania followed by MODY 3. When analysed according to countries, MODY 2 was found prevalent in India, Korea, UK, Italy, Spain, Czech Republic, Canada and Brazil while MODY 3 was common in Japan, China, France Norway and Germany. Conclusion: The MODY 2 was most common. The data from south Asian countries including Pakistan is lacking. As there is a huge burden of diabetes in the country so there is a dire need to do large scale studies on MODY in the country.

Open access

Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Arif, Mohamed Emam, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad A. Arain, Farman A. Siyal, Amlan Patra, Shaaban Saad Elnesr and Rifat Ullah Khan

Abstract

Most of the phosphorus (P) in feed ingredients is present as phytate, which is poorly available for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of different poultry species due to the lack of endogenous phytase. The supplementation of phytase increases the utilization of P by hydrolyzing phytate, which consequently may reduce the excretion of P in the environment. In addition, it has been suggested that phytase may improve the feed utilization, weight gain, egg production and egg traits, nutrient digestibility, energy availability, retention of important minerals in blood and bones. Thus, the effectiveness of phytase on performance and Ca and P absorption in layer chickens fed corn-soybean based diets has been well recognized. The current review briefly discusses the supplementation of phytase in the diet of poultry on performance and egg production and characteristics as well as amino acids and minerals availability.

Open access

Sarfraz Nawaz Malik, Mohsan Raza, Muhammad Arif and Saqib Hussain

Abstract

In this paper, the authors determine the coefficient bounds for functions in certain subclasses of analytic functions related with the conic regions, which are introduced by using the concept of bounded boundary and bounded radius rotations. The effect of certain integral operator on these classes has also been examined.

Open access

Muhammad Saeed, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Muhammad Arif, Mohamed M. El-Hindawy, Adel I. Attia, Khalid M. Mahrose, Itrat Bashir, Farman A. Siyal, Muhammad A. Arain, Sarfraz Ali Fazlani, Khawar Hayat, Chao Sun and Ahmed E. Noreldin

Abstract

The present investigation aimed to study the effect of the partial replacement of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) instead of soybean meal (SBM) with or without vitamin E supplementation in laying hen diet on egg quality criteria, egg analysis, blood chemistry and productive performance traits. A 4×2 factorial design experiment was carried out involving four substitution levels of DDGS (0, 25, 50 and 75%) and two levels of vitamin E (0 and 250 mg /kg diet) through 22-42 weeks of age. No significant differences were noticed between the control and 25 or 50% DDGS substitution in the percentage of eggs produced and egg output. The fewest number of produced eggs and the lightest egg output were observed in 75% DDGS group. Yolk index, shell percentage, and Haugh unit scores were affected (P>0.01) by DDGS levels. Albumin percentage showed increase (P>0.01) in vitamin E treated groups. The impact of the combination of DDGS and vitamin E was significant (P>0.01) on all egg quality traits excepting shell percentage. The 75% DDGS diet gave the highest values of egg nutrients. Vitamin E had a positive effect on egg crude protein, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract which increased by 10.39, 10.28 and 7.85%, respectively. The combination of vitamin E addition and DDGS levels was highly significant (P>0.01) on all egg nutrients. Hens fed the 50% DDGS diet had more concentrations of lipids profile in their blood than those fed control and other DDGS diets. All serum lipid profile inclined to increase due to vitamin E supplementation. The interaction between DDGS and vitamin E had significant (P>0.05 or 0.01) influence on all serum metabolites excepting calcium. It could be concluded that vitamin E could enhance nutrient content of eggs and preserve blood lipids from lipid peroxidation. The interaction between 75% DDGS replaced SBM with 200 mg vitamin E/kg diet accomplished the best results regarding nutrient content of eggs.