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Linan Liu, Xiaomeng Zhao, Xinghui Yin and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

The travel time tomography technology had achieved wide application, the hinge of tomography was inversion algorithm, the ray path tracing technology had a great impact on the inversion results. In order to improve the SNR of inversion image, comprehensive utilization of inversion results with different ray tracing can be used. We presented an imaging fusion method based on improved Wilkinson iteration method. Firstly, the shortest path method and the linear travel time interpolation were used for forward calculation; then combined the improved Wilkinson iteration method with super relaxation precondition method to reduce the condition number of matrix and accelerate iterative speed, the precise integration method was used to solve the inverse matrix more precisely in tomography inversion process; finally, use wavelet transform for image fusion, obtain the final image. Therefore, the ill-conditioned linear equations were changed into iterative normal system through two times of treatment and using images with different forward algorithms for image fusion, it reduced the influence effect of measurement error on imaging. Simulation results showed that, this method can eliminate the artifacts in images effectively, it had extensive practical significance.

Open access

Jie Zhao, Yumei Wang, Gaojie Yun and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

Ground liquefaction and deformation is one of the important causes that damage engineering structures. Chinese current code for seismic design of breakwater is based on the single-level seismic design method as well as code for port and water-way engineering. However, this code can not exactly reflect the seismic performance of breakwater structures which experience different seismic intensities. In this paper, the author used a finite difference software, namely, FLAC3D, to analyze the state and compute seismic responses of breakwater structure. The breakwater foundation’s pore pressure ratio and displacement due to different earthquake have been studied. And the result show that: Smaller earthquakes have little influence on serviceability of the foundation, and severe earthquakes can liquefy some parts of the foundation; In the latter case , obvious changes of pores and foundation displaces can be found. Particularly, when seismic peak acceleration reachs 0.2g, Liquefaction appears in the foundation and mainly concentrated in the upper right side of the structure. In addition, the survey of ultra-hole pressure and displacement values of sand layers of the breakwater, manifests when the ultra pore pressure near 1.0, displacement and overturning structure is relatively large, resulting in varying degrees of damage to the structure. This paper’s research can provide theoretical and designable reference for similar engineering structures

Open access

Leizou Kaywood Elijah and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and contents of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Amassoma axis of the Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The PAH contaminations in the river water samples was performed using GC-MS method. The results were similar for all of the three sampling stations. Six LMW PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and five HMW PAHs: fluoranthene, pyrene benzo (a)anthracene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene were found. The ΣPAH concentration ranged from 0.111mg/L to 0.26mg/L. In this study, PAH fingerprint ratios for determining both petrogenic and pyrogenic (pyrolytic) PAH accumulation in the environment and Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) used to estimate relative toxicity of a PAH compared to that of BaP was employed. The Ph/An ratio for water samples were 0.00, 0.33 and 0.00 in three stations, while associated figures for Fl/Py ratio values were 0.67, 0.83 and 0.50 respectively. Pearson correlation matrice analysis reveals a positive correlation between the PAHs; this could indicate a common source for some of the PAHs, however, some were negatively correlated with each other. This behavior could indicate non-point source. A comparative analysis of PAHs concentrations in the water samples with WHO standards revealed that the results obtained in this study were within the permissible levels, however, carcinogen PAHs present in the water of the Amassoma axis, Nun River may pose a threats to human health.

Open access

Baiwei Lei, Bing Wu, Yatong Zhao and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

In coal mine fire rescues, if the abnormal increase of gas concentration occurs, it is the primary thing to analyze the reasons and identify sources of the abnormal forming, which is also the basis of judge the combustion state of fire area and formulate proper fire reliefs. Nowadays, related researches have recognized the methane explosion as the source of high concentration of H2 formation, but there are few studies about the conditions and reaction mechanism of gas explosion generating high concentration of H2.Therefore, this paper uses the chemical kinetic calculation software, ChemKin, and the 20L spherical explosion experimental device to simulate the generating process and formation conditions of H2 in gas explosion. The experimental results show that: the decomposition of water vapor is the main base element reaction (R84) which leads to the generation of H2.The free radical H is the key factor to influence the formation of H2 generated from gas explosion. With the gradual increase of gas explosion concentration, the explosive reaction becomes more incomplete, and then the generating quantity of H2 increases gradually. Experimental results of 20L spherical explosion are consistent with the change trend about simulation results, which verifies the accuracy of simulation analysis. The results of explosion experiments show that when gas concentration is higher than 9%, the incomplete reaction of methane explosion increases which leads to the gradual increase of H2 formation.

Open access

Wanchao Zhang, Hengxu Liu, Xuewei Zhang, Liang Zhang and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

An array of floating point-absorbing wave energy converters (WECs) is usually employed for extracting efficiently ocean wave energy. For deep water environment, it is more feasible and convenient to connect the absorbers array with a floating body, such as a semi-submersible bottom-moored disk, whose function is to act as the virtual seabed. In the present work, an array of identical floating symmetrically distributed cylinders in a coaxial moored disk as a wave energy device is proposed The power take-off (PTO) system in the wave energy device is assumed to be composed of a linear/nonlinear damper activated by the buoys heaving motion. Hydrodynamic analysis of the examined floating system is implemented in frequency domain. Hydrodynamic interferences between the oscillating bodies are accounted for in the corresponding coupled equations. The array layouts under the constraint of the disk, incidence wave directions, separating distance between the absorbers and the PTO damping are considered to optimize this kind of WECs. Numerical results with regular waves are presented and discussed for the axisymmetric system utilizing heave mode with these interaction factors, in terms of a specific numbers of cylinders and expected power production.

Open access

Ming Lv, Haiqiang Liu, Xin Nie and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

Zinc fuel is considered as a kind of promising energy sources for marine propeller. As one of the key steps for zinc marine energy power system, zinc hydrolysis process had been studied experimentally in a fixed bed reactor. In this study, we focus on the characteristics of micron zinc particle hydrolysis. The experimental results suggested that the steam inner diffusion is the controlling step of accumulative zinc particles hydrolysis reaction at a relative lower temperature and a relative higher water partial pressure. In other conditions, the chemical reaction kinetics was the controlling step. And two kinds of chemical reaction kinetics appeared in experiments: the surface reaction and the gas-gas reaction. The latter one occurs usually for larger zinc particles and high reaction temperature. Temperature seems to be one of the most important parameters for the dividing of different reaction mechanisms. Several parameters of the hydrolysis process including heating rate, water partial pressure, the particle size and temperature were also studied in this paper. Results show that the initial reaction temperature of zinc hydrolysis in fixed bed is about 410°C. And the initial reaction temperature increases as the heating rate increases and as the water partial pressure decreases. The total hydrogen yield increases as the heating rate decreases, as the water partial pressure increases, as the zinc particle size decreases, and as the reaction temperature increases. A hydrogen yield of more than 81.5% was obtained in the fixed bed experiments.

Open access

Li Zhi-Fu, Shi YuYun, Ren HuiLonga, Li Hui and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

The time domain boundary element method was utilized to simulate the propagation of the irregular waves in a numerical wave tank. The problem was solved in a time-marching scheme, upon the irregular waves being fed through the inflow boundary, in which the theoretical solution was obtained from the wave energy spectrum. The open boundary condition was modeled by the multi transmitting formula (MTF), in which the phase velocity was calculated according to the Sommerfeld’s condition. The velocity potential and wave elevation were directly obtained by integrating the free surface condition twice, with respect to time. The accuracy of the developed numerical scheme was verified by simulating the propagation of irregular waves. The numerical results show good agreements with the analytical solutions, which prove that the proposed scheme is a promising way to the simulation of wave-body interactions.

Open access

Duo Qi, Jinfu Feng, An Liu, Junhua Hu, Hu Xu, Yongli Li and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

Learning from the motion principle of quadrotor, a symmetric propeller AUV, which has small size and low velocity is designed. Compared with the AUV equipped with rudders, it has better maneuverability and manipulation at low velocity. According to the Newton-Euler method, the 6 DOF kinematic model and dynamic model of the propeller AUV are established. A stability controller that consists of 3 different PID controllers is designed. It makes the depth and attitude angle as trigger conditions, and the relevant controller is chosen in different moving process. The simulation experiments simulate ideal motion state and disturbed motion state, and experiments results show that the stability controller based on combined sections method can make the best of mature technology of PID, and meet the control requirements in different stages. It has a higher respond speed and accuracy, improving the stability of the propeller AUV under the disturbance of complex ocean currents.

Open access

Jin Huang, Wunian Yang, Li Peng and Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf

Abstract

The amount of eco-water resources reflects the land surface water conservation capability, and the underlying surface condition in the hydrologic cycle. In the upper Minjiang River Basin, the amounts of eco-water resources were retrieved from remotely sensed data during 1992 to 2005. Through regression analysis between the retrieved eco-water data and the climate hydrological data mainly including the temperature, the precipitation, and the runoff in the same period, the model of eco-water driving force affecting the evolvement of runoff was established. The accuracy analysis indicates that the model can well describe the relationship between dry season runoff and its driven factors, the measured data validation proves that the model has high precision and good practicability. The eco-water remote sensing inversion provides a valid method to quantify the land surface water conservation capability, and suggests an interesting approach for the driving function quantitative researches of underlying surface factor in the hydrologic cycle.