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Sana Riaz, Rubina Abid, Syed Abid Ali, Iqra Munir and Muhammad Qaiser

Abstract

A new species of the genus Cleome L. from Pakistan is described and illustrated. The new species is described under the name C. karachiensis sp. nov. and compared with two closely related species i.e., Cleome brachycarpa and C. viscosa in terms of morphology, palynology, seed morphology and seed protein profile. A key to the species of genus Cleome L. from Pakistan is also provided.

Open access

Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Ali Syed, Nasir Abbas, Sana Hanif, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Khalid Hussain, Muhammad Akhlaq and Zeeshan Ahmad

Abstract

A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

Open access

Muhammad Maqsood, Yasir Nawab, Khubab Shaker, Muhammad Umair, Munir Ashraf, Danish Mahmood Baitab, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani and Salma Shahid

Abstract

The paper investigates the effects of weave structure and fabric thread density on the comfort and mechanical properties of various test fabrics woven from polyester/cotton yarns. Three different weave structures, that is, 1/1 plain, 2/1 twill and 3/1 twill, and three different fabric densities were taken as input variables whereas air permeability, overall moisture management capacity, tensile strength and tear strength of fabrics were taken as response variables and a comparison is made of the effect of weave structure and fabric density on the response variables. The results of fabric samples were analysed in Minitab statistical software. The coefficients of determinations (R-sq values) of the regression equations show a good predictive ability of the developed statistical models. The findings of the study may be helpful in deciding appropriate manufacturing specifications of woven fabrics to attain specific comfort and mechanical properties.

Open access

Jawaid Iqbal, Muhammad Ali Khalid, Farina M. Hanif, Rajesh Mandhwani, Syed Mudassir Laeeq, Zain Majid and Nasir Hassan Luck

Abstract

Background

Renal dysfunction is one of the dreaded complications of cirrhosis. MELD is a validated chronic liver disease (CLD) severity scoring system. Urinary (U) Na/K ratio closely correlates with renal dysfunction in terms of low GFR in cirrhotic patients.

Patients and Methods

All consecutive patients with decompensated cirrhosis between the age of 18 to 70 years, of either gender, presenting in the outpatients’ department of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, from June 2015 to June 2017 were included. The MELD score was calculated and the UNa/K ratio less than 1 was taken as surrogate marker of renal dysfunction. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 20.0).

Results

A total of 71 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 43.79 years and majority were male (67.6%). The most common cause of liver cirrhosis was HCV, found in 42 (59.2%) patients. The mean CTP score was 10.48 ± 2.069 (range: 6–14) with majority of the patients following in class C, that is, 48 (67.6%). Mean MELD score was 21.75 ± 8.96 (range: 8–43). In 57 patients (80.3%), MELD score was > 15.The mean serum creatinine and mean serum sodium were 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/dl (range: 0.37–5.3) and 133.79 ± 6.9 mmol/L (range: 112–152), respectively. Mean urinary sodium and urinary potassium were 38.60 ± 46.64 mmol/L (range: 5–181) and 38.15 ± 23.9 mmol/L (range: 4.3–112), respectively. In majority of study population, UNa/K ratio was below 1, that is, in 52 patients (73.2%). Statistically significant correlation was documented between MELD score and UNa/K ratio (ɤ = 0.34, P = 0.004).

Conclusion

The inverse correlation between MELD scores and UNa/K ratio indicates that patients with CLD and higher MELD scores might have renal dysfunction. This finding however should be corroborated by large scale studies.

Open access

Syed Mansoor Ali, W. A. Farooq, M. R. Baig, M.A. Shar, M. Atif, S. S. Alghamdi, M. S. Algarawi, Naeem Ur-Rehman and Muhammad Hammad Aziz

Abstract

We have investigated the influence of Ag doping on zinc oxide thin films. Pure and Ag doped, preferentially oriented transparent zinc oxide thin films were prepared by sol gel technique on a glass substrate using diethyl amine as a stabilizer. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films with hexagonal wurtzite type structure were polycrystalline in nature with a preferred grain orientation in the 101 direction. The crystallite sizes decreased from 34 nm to 27 nm after silver doping. Both photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements showed that the band gap increased after the Ag doping. The structure and optical characterization studies clearly indicated the incorporation of Ag in ZnO. Hence, the observed increase in the optical band gap and decrease in crystallite size can be directly attributed to the effect of Ag ion incorporation into the ZnO lattice.