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Open access

Muhammad Nadeem, Masum Akond, Atif Riaz, Muhammad Qasim, Adnan Younis and Amjad Farooq


Fertility of hybrid tea roses is often reduced due to their interspesific origin but also to intensive inbreeding. New genotypes used as pollen donors represent an economic risk for a breeding program, as their influence on seed production is unknown. In this study 9 garden rose genotypes were selected from a company database as high fertile or low fertile male parents, according to the number of seeds per hybridization. Pollen morphology and in vitro germination of the selected genotypes were characterized. Pollen was either small (mean diameter = 30 urn), shrunken, and irregular (abnormal), or large (mean diameter = 30 urn), elliptical and crossed by furrows (normal). High correlations were found between the number of seeds produced per hybridization and the pollen diameter (r = 0.94) or the percentage of normal pollen (r = 0.96). In order to evaluate the predictive power of the models, we conducted regression analyses and performed a validation experiment on genotypes not present in the database and without background information on fertility. Pollen diameter and percentage of normal pollen were characterized and fitted in the regression models for seed set predictions. Validation with an independent dataset gave a good prediction for 83.3% of the data. This indicates that using either the mean pollen diameter or the percentage of normal pollen resulted in effective fertility prediction. Moreover cluster analysis of the data classified all the cultivars into various groups with varying fertility. This tool could enhance the genetic variability in crossings between hybrid tea roses, thus creating possibilities for less economically risky exploitation of new tetraploid genotypes as male parents.

Open access

Muhammad Adnan, Fakhar Imam, Iffat Shabbir, Zahra Ali and Tayyaba Rahat



Rapid blood glucose estimation is required to prescribe treatments and to make dose adjustments in diabetic patients. However, measuring plasma glucose levels is time consuming. Therefore, the use of glucometers has greatly increased.


To measure the correlation between capillary and venous blood glucose levels.


Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the present study and informed written consent was obtained from all participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical information was noted. Capillary and venous glucose levels were determined. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for data analysis.


Mean age of patients was 52 ± 12 years. It included 29% men; 71% women; 9% smokers; and 90% poor. Mean venous glucose was 11.73 ± 4.64 mmol/L and mean capillary glucose 12.57 ± 5.21 mmol/L. These findings demonstrated a significant intermethod mean difference of 0.84 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Inter-glucose difference was not significant at glucose levels near normal. However, it increased gradually with rise in glucose measurements and was significant at elevated glucose levels. Both concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated positive correlation and more consistency between glucose estimations. A Bland and Altman plot presented excellent agreement between glucometrically and photometrically determined glucose levels.


A positive correlation coefficient showed strong association between capillary and venous glucose measurements.

Open access

Tania Shamim Rizvi, Abdul Latif Khan, Liaqat Ali, Narjis Al-Mawali, Fazal Mabood, Javid Hussain, Muhammad Adnan and Ahmed Al-Harrasi


The present study investigates the potential role of medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea in ameliorating the oxidative stress developed during the generation of reactive oxygen species. Organic extracts of different organs (leaf, stem and root) of these medicinal plants obtained in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water were assayed for radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both selected medicinal plants was also evaluated. The results indicated that extracts of T. apollinea leaf, stem and root have higher TPC compared to those of C. colocynthis. Similarly, the results of the present study revealed higher bioactivity of C. colocynthis than that of T. apollinea in various antioxidant assays. Various plant parts of each plant were also compared.