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  • Author: Muhammad Adnan x
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Rapid blood glucose estimation is required to prescribe treatments and to make dose adjustments in diabetic patients. However, measuring plasma glucose levels is time consuming. Therefore, the use of glucometers has greatly increased.


To measure the correlation between capillary and venous blood glucose levels.


Seventy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the present study and informed written consent was obtained from all participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical information was noted. Capillary and venous glucose levels were determined. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for data analysis.


Mean age of patients was 52 ± 12 years. It included 29% men; 71% women; 9% smokers; and 90% poor. Mean venous glucose was 11.73 ± 4.64 mmol/L and mean capillary glucose 12.57 ± 5.21 mmol/L. These findings demonstrated a significant intermethod mean difference of 0.84 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Inter-glucose difference was not significant at glucose levels near normal. However, it increased gradually with rise in glucose measurements and was significant at elevated glucose levels. Both concordance correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated positive correlation and more consistency between glucose estimations. A Bland and Altman plot presented excellent agreement between glucometrically and photometrically determined glucose levels.


A positive correlation coefficient showed strong association between capillary and venous glucose measurements.


This study investigates the impact of hierarchical jumps in the CEO’s succession on firms’ financial performance. To contemplate deeply, hierarchical jumps have been categorized into high and low level evaluating the positive impact of high-level hierarchical jump on firms’ performance. Moreover, this study has also formulated hierarchical intensity signifying the idea that despite neglecting senior board members during hierarchical jumps, still marginal increment in the firms’ growth has been observed. Using panel regression technique along with 2sls instrumental regression, this research reveals that hierarchical jumps in CEOs successions are more conducive only if the incumbent CEOs are selected irrespective of age, degree or high hierarchical position within the hierarchical ladder. Lastly, this study enunciates that firms having high total assets boost their performance via hierarchical jumps emphatically.


The present study investigates the potential role of medicinal plants Citrullus colocynthis and Tephrosia apollinea in ameliorating the oxidative stress developed during the generation of reactive oxygen species. Organic extracts of different organs (leaf, stem and root) of these medicinal plants obtained in n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water were assayed for radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, anti-lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione. The total phenolic content (TPC) of both selected medicinal plants was also evaluated. The results indicated that extracts of T. apollinea leaf, stem and root have higher TPC compared to those of C. colocynthis. Similarly, the results of the present study revealed higher bioactivity of C. colocynthis than that of T. apollinea in various antioxidant assays. Various plant parts of each plant were also compared.