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Mpho Bosupeng

Abstract

The rising number of scandals leading to the closure of many large companies is worrisome. The traditional belief is that business and ethics are oxymorons and one is not expected to be totally virtuous during business operations. Nonetheless, this does not mean ethical standards should be side-lined. Professional associations such as the Chartered Financial Institute (CFA) uphold moral values and urge members to exercise high moral standards and diligence in their duties. Philosophically, major accounting scandals could have been nipped in the bud by whistle blowing before the wrong deeds escalated. However whistle blowing is a major issue and is viewed as disloyalty. In this paper, the dilemmas of whistle blowing are evaluated using contemporary ethical theories which are: egoism, deontology and utilitarianism. The analysis shows that deontology and utilitarianism are based on altruism and may support whistle blowing because they are grounded on consideration of other people. It is worth noting that morally upright adults are often a result of being brought up as ethical children from a psychological standpoint.

Open access

Mpho Bosupeng

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore long run affiliations between exports and carbon dioxide emissions. This paper examines thirty-seven countries over the period 1960 to 2010 and uses the Toda and Yamamoto causality approach to investigate the direction of causal links. The results reveal that carbon dioxide emissions Granger cause exports in the following economies: Bolivia, Canada, Costa Rica, Morocco, Austria and Ireland. Nonetheless, the reverse causality proved that exports Granger cause carbon dioxide emissions in twelve economies. Furthermore, the study registered bidirectional causal links between exports and carbon dioxide emissions in the USA and Burkina Faso. We conclude that countries should consider exports market demand, energy consumption and economic growth in their attempts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Open access

Mpho Bosupeng

Abstract

In the early days of industrialisation, economists believed that the ramifications of economic growth will far outweigh the potential damage to the environment. Today the concern is the rising magnitude of emissions. Many economies are under immense pressure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon taxation and absorption technologies seem to be the main mechanisms controlling emissions in different nations. China proposed her target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 40-45% by 2025. The purpose of this study is to determine if China’s ambition of reducing its carbon dioxide emissions is feasible. This investigation also examines the potential effects of China's emissions on the economic growth of other countries. The study demonstrates that China’s target may not only reduce her output, but may also adversely affect the economic growth of others. This article further reveals that unemployment in China is likely to soar during the reduction in emissions and energy consumption. Additionally, this paper evaluates the effects of green taxation on carbon dioxide emissions. In conclusion, there is a possibility that China may reach her emissions target by 2025. However, the country faces a dilemma between economic growth and environmental preservation. It is recommended that China should explore techniques which will reduce emissions but not impinge negatively on economic growth.

Open access

Mpho Bosupeng

Abstract

This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japan. In addition, significant relations were observed between output and carbon dioxide discharges in Spain, Canada, India and Japan. Changes in output had substantial impact on emissions in Germany, Canada and India. The results also show that the number of passenger cars influences the magnitude of emissions in multiple economies. In conclusion, the automotive industry has to be considered in policies that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.