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  • Author: Moustafa Baraka x
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Evaluation of Quad-Constellation GNSS Precise Point Positioning in Egypt

Abstract

Commonly, relative GPS positioning technique is used in Egypt for precise positioning applications. However, the requirement of a reference station is usually problematic for some applications as it limits the operational range of the system and increases the system cost and complexity On the other hand; the single point positioning is traditionally used for low accuracy applications such as land vehicle navigation with positioning accuracy up to 10 meters in some scenarios which caused navigation problems especially in downtown areas. Recently, high positioning accuracy can be obtained through Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique in which only once GNSS receiver is used. However, the major drawback of PPP is the long convergence time to reach to the surveying grade accuracy compared to the existing relative techniques. Moreover, the PPP accuracy is significantly degraded due to shortage in satellite availability in urban areas. To overcome these limitations, the quad constellation GNSS systems namely; GPS.GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou can be combined to increase the satellite availability and enhance the satellite geometry which in turn reduces the convergence time. In Egypt, at the moment, the signals of both Galileo and BeiDou could be logged with limited number of satellites up to four and six satellites for both Systems respectively. In this paper, we investigated the performance of the Quad-GNSS positioning in both dual- and single-frequency ionosphere free PPP modes for both high accurate and low cost navigation application, respectively. The performance of the developed PPP models will be investigated through GNSS data sets collected at three Egyptian cities namely, Cairo, Alexandria and Aswan.

Open access
Enhanced Local Ionosphere Model for Multi-Constellations Single Frequency Precise Point Positioning Applications: Egyptian Case Study

Abstract

The positioning accuracy of single frequency precise point positioning (SFPPP) attributes mainly to the ionosphere error, which strongly affects GNSS signals. When GNSS signals pass through the various ionosphere layers, they will be bent and their speed will be changed due to dispersive nature of ionosphere. To correct the ionosphere error, it is common to use Klobuchar ionosphere model or Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM). However, Klobuchar can deal with only about 50% of the Ionosphere effect and global Ionosphere maps are often inadequate to describe detailed features of local ionosphere because of limited precision and resolution. In this paper, an enhanced local ionosphere model was developed relying on modeling of measurements from a dense Egyptian permanent tracking GNSS network in order to achieve high precision ionosphere delay correction. The performance of the developed enhanced Egyptian ionosphere model (EIM) was verified through multi-constellations SFPPP accuracy for static and kinematic modes. For static mode, 24 hours multi-constellations datasets collected at three selected stations, Alexandria, Cairo, and Aswan, in Egypt on February 27, 2017, to investigate the performance of the developed local ionospheric model in comparison with the Klobuchar, GIM and ionosphere free models. After session time of half an hour, the results show that the performance of static SFPPP based on the developed Egyptian ionospheric map (EIM) achieved a comparable accuracy WRT using ionosphere free model. While using EIM, achieved an improvements of (38%, 28%, and 42%) and (32%, 10%, and 37%) for accuracy of latitude, longitude, and altitude in comparison with using Klobuchar and GIM models, respectively For kinematic mode, datasets of 2 hours of observations with 1 second sampling rate were logged during vehicular test; the test was carried out on the ring road of the city of Cairo, Egypt, on September 16, 2017. After half an hour of kinematic SFPPP data-processing, the performance of using Egyptian ionospheric map (EIM) for ionosphere delay correction, achieved an improvements of three dimension coordinates of (83%, 47%, and 62%) and (57%, 65%, and 21%) with respect to using Klobuchar model and GIM model, respectively.

Open access