Moushira Erfan Zaki, Wafaa Ezzat, Yasser A. Elhosary and Omnia M. Saleh
Background and Objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of liver disease in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in a sample of obese adolescents and to identify the clinical and biochemical characteristics in subjects with NAFLD.
Design and Settings: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 366 adolescents. The data were collected from June 2011 to July 2012.
Patients and Methods: The study included 202 females and 164 males. All were subjected to anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasongraphic assessment.
Results: The prevalence of NAFLD in general was 57.65% (62.19% for males and 53.96% for females). Results showed statistical gender difference. There were statistical differences in BMI, WC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, body fat percentage (BF %), subcutaneous fat layers, visceral fat and ALT between NAFLD group and non- NAFLD group in both genders. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in the NAFLD group than non NAFLD group. The present study showed that 58.29% of NAFLD were obese in which 49 % of males and 67% of females.
Conclusion: Abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for NAFLD. Prevalence of NAFLD among obese adolescents is high and prevention is extremely important.
Moushira Erfan Zaki, Mona Mamdouh Hassan, Hafez Mahmoud Bazaraa, Hany Fathy Ahmed and Badr
Background and Aim: Growth retardation is still an important manifestation of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the growth in relation to nutritional status in Egyptian children with CRF on hemodialysis.
Subjects and Methods: The study included 30 Egyptian children above the age of six years on regular haemodialysis at the Haemodialysis Unit of the Centre of Pediatric Nephrology and Transplantation of Cairo University. Anthropometry, biochemical parameters and dietary intake were measured. Anthropometric measurements were expressed as z - scores.
Results: Data shows that height was the most affected anthropometric parameter. Short stature in CRF is proportionate and body weight is less affected than height. Dietary analysis showed that 76.7 % of patients had recommended dietary allowance of calories. Height z-score showed a significant positive correlation with caloric intake. On the other hand, the protein intake showed a significant positive correlation with blood urea nitrogen and a significant negative correlation with serum bicarbonate.
Conclusions: Nutritional assessment is essential to the management of children with CRF. Anthropometry is a sensitive indicator of the nutritional status. The study recommends avoiding excessive protein intake to prevent metabolic acidosis and accumulation of toxic nitrogen waste products.
Azza Mohamed Sarry El Din, Moushira Erfan Zaki, Wafaa A. Kandeel, Sanaa Kamal Mohamed and Khaled Helmi El Wakeel
Background: Obesity, particularly abdominal adiposity, is closely associated with premature atherosclerosis and many metabolic modifications including insulin resistance dyslipidemia hypertension and diabetes. Cut-off values for abdominal obesity predicting future cardiovascular disease are known to be population specific.
Objective: To identify cut-off points of some anthropometric measurements (BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR) that associated with hypertension in a sample of Egyptian adults.
Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis. The blood pressure of 5550 Egyptian adults was measured (2670 females - 2880 males).The subjects represented different geographic localities and different social classes. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, waist circumferences, and hip circumferences were also measured by practitioners.
Results: The cut-off values to detect hypertension in females were 30.08 for BMI, 87.75 for WC , 0.81 for WHR and 0.65 for WHtR, and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 69.1; 60.7- 80.9; 48.6 -65.3; 53.4 and 61.4; 58.9, respectively. The cut-off values to detect hypertension in males were 27.98 for BMI, 95.75 for WC, 0.92 for WHR, and 0.57 for WHtR and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 62.8; 59.9 -71.9; 51.9 -64.6; 55.8 and 59.7; 55.8, respectively.
Conclusion: The BMI, Waist circumference, WHR and WHtR values can predict the presence of hypertension risk in adult Egyptians.