Naouel Ouali, Bourhane E. Belabed, Fadila Zeghdoudi and Mounira Rachedi
The present work was designed to assess the contamination level in the coastal of Annaba, following the spectrophotometric determination of the level of some metallic elements (Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd) in the sediments along an increasing bathymetric gradient (10 m and 20 m), as well as in the biological indicator grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) muscle. During the winter period (2014), 12 surface sediment samples, and a total of 24 fish were collected. Once the samples are dried, crushed and sieved, 0.5 g dry weight of each sample was added to concentrated acids. The results showed that the levels of some metals are superior to the recommended guideline values, and consequently the sediment of this bay is contaminated by iron, lead and copper. The contamination index (CI) showed a general tendency in the concentration of the studied metals as follows: Fe > Pb > Cu > Zn > Ni > Cd, since the most studied metals occurred at higher concentration in depth (20 m).
However, the average concentrations of metals in fishes were found to be as the following order: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd. The consumption of fish from some contaminated sites can be dangerous because concentrations of lead, cadmium and zinc exceed the international standards. Moreover, the strong positive correlation observed between the metallic elements of sediments and fishes confirm that these metals resulted from the similar sources of the anthropic activities, such as domestic, port, industrial and agricultural waste discharges. This is confirmed by the determined of pollution load index (PLI) parameter. Conclusively, a regular monitoring program of heavy metal is recommended for protecting these organisms, and to reduce the environmental risks.
The diet of the greater forkbeard Phycis blennoides (Brünnich, 1768) of the Algerian coast was studied between December 2013 and June 2015, providing information on its ecology for a better understanding of the feeding strategy. A total of 956 individuals, whose total length (TL) varied between 9.7 and 54.5 cm and weight (W) between 2.80 and 1334.11 g, were examined. The index of relative importance (%IRI), combining the three main descriptors of the presence of different ingested prey (%F, %N, %W), was used to characterize the relative importance of different food taxa. Qualitative and quantitative variations in diet were studied according to sex, size and seasons. The average annual digestive vacuity index (%V) was 5.51. It did not vary between seasons (x2cal = 5.43, x2th = 7.82, α = 5%) and size (x2cal = 2.08, x2th = 5.99, α = 5%), but was different between male (%V = 4.94) and female (%V= 12.78). Qualitative analysis of stomach contents reveals a fairly diverse range of predation with 1342 preys counted for a total weight of 462.84 g, which corresponds to an average number (AN) and weight (AW) of 3.03 and 1.04 g, respectively. This species feeds on benthic preys, composed mainly of natantia crustaceans (%IRI = 44.84) and teleost fish (%IRI = 2.61) with intraspecific preys (%IRI = 6.15). This cannibalism was frequent in specimens with a TL that exceeds 20 cm; it was even more frequent in females as well as in winter. Significant differences in feeding habits of P. blennoides occurred according to sex, fish size and between seasons. The trophic level (TROPH) was high (3.66 < TROPH < 3.97), corresponding to carnivorous character.
This study was conducted in Hammam Debagh Reservoir located in northeastern Algeria, which was first the subject of fish farming tests in 2001. The species tested included Chinese carp, royal carp, common carp, pikeperch, and common bream. The present work aimed to determine the age and growth of one of the most frequently caught species in the reservoir, common bream, Abramis brama. This information is essential to the knowledge of fish biology, and thereby to solving many of the problems of fish research and development. A sample of 100 common bream, A. brama, was caught with gillnets over a period of six months from December 2017 to May 2018. The results obtained fit well with the growth model and were similar to those published regarding other environments. Scales from a sample of 50 fish were read under an optical microscope, which permitted identifying five age groups. The value of the overall sex ratio (4.88) revealed a strong imbalance in favor of males throughout the study period. The relationship linking length-weight is of the minor allometry type with b < 3.