The clinical and para clinical manifestations of influenza in various patients have range from an autoimmune disease to a life-threatening respiratory infection. In addition, the severity of the disease is influenced by factors such as demographic factors, underlying diseases, and immune response. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological characteristics of patients with this type of influenza in Babol (north of Iran). This study was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 2015 to March 2016. Subsequently, in this study, records of 123 patients with clinical signs of the influenza-like disease who have undergone the clinical sign in hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. Of 123 patients admitted to a possible diagnosis of influenza, 58 patients (47.2%) were PCR positive for H1N1, while seventy nine (64.2%) participants were women and 21 (17.1%) had diabetes or underlying lung disease. Most of the involved age groups were of individuals above the age of 50. These were followed by the 21-35 years-old. Fever (78%), cough (65.9%), shivering (58.5%) and myalgia (56.1%) were the most common clinical symptoms. Increased levels of transaminases (43.1%), leukocytosis (35.8%) and thrombocytopenia (34.2%) were as well reported in patients as the most frequently reported para clinical findings. In the present study, the most usual clinical symptoms were fever, cough, chill, and myalgia, while gastrointestinal symptoms were also noticeably observed in patients. In an experimental study, a significant number of patients showed leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and increased transaminases.
Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan, Mostafa Javanian, Zahra Aliramaji and Soheil Ebrahimpour
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis syndrome. This infection often resolves over a period of several months without outcomes, but may occasionally be complicated by a great variety of neurologic, hepatic, hematologic and respiratory complications. In the current report, we present the case histories of three patients with acute hepatitis following EBV infection when previously healthy. The patients showed fever, nausea, weakness, as well as yellowing of the skin, and then in the course of examination, sore throat. They were managed supportively and their clinical condition improved. Liver function tests such as ALT, AST, ALP, were undertaken and bilirubin were elevated. The serological tests for EBV infection were consistent with the acute phase of infection. The monospot test was also positive. The patients were managed supportively, and their critical condition was improved.
In the current study, we investigated the risk factors for tuberculosis in patients admitted to the Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 207 patients with proven tuberculosis during the years 2008-2015. Demographic data such as age and sex, smoking, history of underlying illness, illness symptoms, and laboratory results were collected and analyzed at a significant level of less than 0.05. From 207 patients, 136 were male (65.7%), 71 were female (34.3%), and 76 of them (37.3%) were smokers. It is notable that most patients (29.5%) were over the age of 71. The relation between age profile and being tuberculosis has been studied, but the co-relation was found to be not significant. The most common complaint has been coughing (60.9%).
While investigating underling diseases, the most common illness has found to be Diabetes (11.3%). Based our finding, there was a significant relationship between gender and smoking with tuberculosis. Accordingly, as smoking is one of the risk factors for tuberculosis, smokers and non-smokers should be informed that smoking carries the risk for tuberculosis. Such a program should be particularly addressed to males.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory disorder and an acute immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathy that causes reduced signal transmissions, progressive muscle weakness, and paralysis. The etiology of the syndrome still remains controversial and uncertain. GBS can be initiated and triggered by respiratory tract infections such as influenza, and intestinal infections such as Campylobacter jejuni. In addition, there is considerable evidence suggesting links between influenza vaccination and GBS. As reported previously, the incidence of GBS in individuals receiving swine flu vaccine was about one to two cases per million. Despite the influenza vaccine efficacy, its association with an immune-mediated demyelinating process can be challenging as millions of people get vaccinated every year. In this review we will discuss the association between influenza infection and vaccination with GBS by focusing on the possible immunopathological mechanisms.