Introduction. In recent years spending free time in the Lublin Region has been more frequently related to equestrian tourism based on the infrastructure of the existing centres. Papers published so far focus mainly on a detailed description of features of horses used for equestrian tourism. Few papers have analysed offers and issues related to the promotion of this form of tourism. There is no paper discussing the spatial distribution of equestrian tourism centres, or analysing their offer at the regional scale. In response to this, a study was undertaken with special consideration of the features of the natural environment. Material and methods. In the period from October 2010 to April 2011, secondary information (statistics, registers, scientific papers) was analysed and primary material (field inventory, diagnostic interviews and an opinion poll) on the state of equestrian tourism in the Lublin Region was collected. Results. The analysis of the spatial distribution of 61 equestrian tourism centres subject to the inventory reveals that the highest number of centres function in the Zamooeæ and Biała Podlaska poviats. The comparison of offers in the scope of equestrian tourism in the Lublin Region shows that the basic offer of the region includes four kinds of services: horse riding, sleigh riding, chaise riding and horse riding courses. The highest number of horse treks is offered by centres in the Biała Podlaska poviat. Conclusions. In view of the data obtained, an asset in the scope of the development of equestrian tourism is the structure of offers directed at tourists and the infrastructure that already exists. Moreover, the development of this form of tourism is favoured by the features of the natural environment; the majority of trails and centres are located in environmentally valuable areas. Particularly the landscape, the filtrating-detoxicating properties of plant assemblages, their bioclimate and aesthetic value should contribute to the development of a complex offer (appropriate promotional package) of equestrian tourism in the Lublin Region
Ryszard Kulig, Grzegorz Łysiak, Zbigniew Krzysiak, Monika Wójcik and Renata Różyło
This paper presents the results of pea straw compaction efficiency tests. The compliance of the tested material to pressure agglomeration was assessed depending on the compaction pressure used (45-113 MPa). The compaction was carried out using a Zwick testing machine, type Z020/TN2S, and a closed die pressing unit. It was found that, along with the pressure increase, the material density in the chamber increased (from 1.255 to 1.76 g∙cm−3), as well as the agglomerate's density (from 0.739 to 1.05 g∙cm−3) and the product's mechanical resistance (from 0.31 to 0.69 MPa). Increasing the compaction pressure in the analyzed range increased the unit value of compaction work, from 17.16 to 34.27 J·g−1.
Wheat kernel is made up of structures of different apparent viscosities with varied ability to withstand stress and dissipate strain energy. Its complex mechanical behaviour determines technological susceptibility and is important for wheat quality assessment. The aim of the study was the examination of the Peleg and Normand model to characterize the overall stress relaxation behaviour of wheat kernel at varying loading conditions. The relaxation experiments were made with a help of a universal machine Zwick Z020 in compression at four distinct initial load levels, i.e., 20, 30, 40, and 50 N. The measurements were made for intact wheat kernels at seven levels of moisture content. Relaxation characteristics were approximated with the help of Peleg and Normand formula. An interactive influence of the load level and moisture on Peleg and Normand constants have been confirmed. The initial loading level had none or only slight effect on the model coefficients (Y(t), k1 and k2). The parameters of the Peleg and Normand model decreased with the increase of water content in kernels. For moist kernels, a higher amount of absorbed compression energy was relaxed, since less energy was necessary to keep the deformation at a constant level.
Polish tourists who decide to spend a holiday in various countries can be classified as ‘institutionalised’ tourists. They mostly choose tourist packages proposed by tour operators and their quality is one of the determinants of purchase. Although there have been many attempts at assessing the quality of single tourism services/products, no consistent methods for evaluation of the quality of services in a tourist package have been developed so far. Therefore, the present study proposes a subjective consumerbased research procedure to assess the quality of such a package. The procedure was prepared based on the example of an assessment of Tunisia tourist packages chosen by Polish tourists. The study procedure included the assumptions and principles of the SERVPERF method as well as a diagnostic survey and the use of descriptive statistics. The results are a starting point for formulating recommendations for tour operators offering Polish tourists basic packages in Tunisia.
We analysed changes in soil chemical properties (pH, C:N, N, P, K, Ca, Na) inside two forest areas chosen for renewal (Lubartów A and B) and within one post-agricultural site (Świerczyna) designated for afforestation with Scots pine. The experimental plots were located in areas known as persistent cockchafer grub spots. The Lubartów A site was not fenced and showed signs of wild boar activity. Analyses were carried out in the autumn of 2011 and spring 2012, prior to pine sawdust application to the soil and before tree planting, respectively, and again one year later in May 2013. Precipitation as well as air and soil temperatures were recorded throughout the experimental period. We found that soil temperature and humidity, determined by changes in weather, differences in soil chemical properties between forest and agricultural sites as well as sawdust treatments differentially affected soil reaction, C:N ratios and nutrient content. In the unfenced area (Lubartów A), the content of nutrient forms available to plants decreased no more under sawdust treatment than under control conditions. In the remaining areas, sawdust treatment caused an increase or no change in soil concentrations of the investigated nutrients. Under suitable temperature and humidity conditions, sawdust can represent a significant source of energy-rich compounds promoting diversified edaphone activity, which appears to be the main reason for changes in soil nutrient content.
Magdalena Wójcik-Pędziwiatr, Klaudia Plinta, Agnieszka Krzak-Kubica, Katarzyna Zajdel, Marcel Falkiewicz, Jacek Dylak, Jan Ober, Andrzej Szczudlik and Monika Rudzińska
Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor.
Joanna Małaczewska, Edyta Kaczorek-Łukowska, Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Wojciech Rękawek, Roman Wójcik, Krzysztof Niemczuk and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
Introduction:Coxiella (C.) burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, is able to modulate the macrophage/T-lymphocyte axis in an infected organism and impair synthesis of monokines and lymphokines.
Material and Methods: The purpose of this research was to determine the levels of the cytokines that play a key role in the response to C. burnetii antigens (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in the serum of animals originating from an infected herd prior to vaccination (day 0) and at 1, 7, and 21 days afterwards.
Results: The vaccination of animals did not affect the production of IL-6, IL-1β, or IL-2. The serum levels of these cytokines were too low to measure in most of the samples. The initial levels of TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-10 were higher in seropositive than in seronegative animals, although significant differences between seropositive shedders and seropositive nonshedders appeared only in the levels of IFNγ and IL-10. Additionally, the course of the post-vaccination response concerning these two cytokines was different among seronegative nonshedders, seropositive nonshedders, and seropositive shedders.
Conclusion: It seems that analysis of the IFNγ and IL-10 concentrations in animal blood serum may have some practical value in an assessment of the health status of seropositive animals and post-vaccination response.