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Open access

Zuzana Sitková, Roman Sitko, Monika Vejpustková, Jozef Pajtík and Vít Šrámek

Abstract

We examined the effect of weather variables on radial growth of Norway spruce and European beech at the intra- and interannual level. We used database of regular growth measurements at 9 forest sites distributed along an altitudinal and spatial gradient within the Slovakia and Czech Republic. In the period of 2010–2017, we analysed data from 213 dendrometers with manual reading in monthly or biweekly interval. The mean daily and annual diameter increments were analysed in relation to air temperatures and precipitation observed during the respective growing seasons. The general intra-annual diameter increment was modelled using a log-normal function. Results of modelling suggest that precipitation was a better predicting factor of the increment in spruce, while air temperature enhanced predictions of increments in beech. The highest, eight-year-cumulative increment of spruce (31.1 mm) and beech (22.8 mm) was found in the mixed mountainous forest at Poľana site, where both species occur in their growth optimum. The interspecific comparison of radial growth at this site revealed earlier culmination of increment in spruce compared to beech. The growth-limiting weather conditions for spruce occurred especially during the dry season 2015, while in beech sites the slight decrease of annual increment was observed in 2016. In the lowest altitudes of studied forest sites (beech 350 m a.s.l., spruce 440 m a.s.l.) the radial growth was reduced due to high summer temperatures. In the context of further predicted increase of air temperatures, these altitudinal limits for tree growth should be considered in the future forest management in Central Europe.

Open access

Tomáš Čihák, Tomáš Hlásny, Radka Stolariková, Monika Vejpustková and Róbert Marušák

Abstract

The Small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) is currently not commercially important species, therefore the knowledge of biomass partitioning in a tree is rather incomplete. Moreover, lime biomass is estimated mostly using biomass functions designated for other species, without the knowledge of limits of such a use. For these reasons, we developed functions for the estimation of lime biomass in the aboveground woody parts. The functions were parameterized using 81 tree samples collected in two plots in the Czech Republic. In addition, we compared the biomass estimates produced by our functions with estimates produced by a function for beech, which have been obviously used as a surrogate for missing lime models in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

On average, 78% of lime aboveground biomass was found to account for tree stem, 20% for branches and 2% for stump. Average biomass density was 374 kg m−3 and no significant differences between tree compartments were found. Accuracy of all models in terms of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) significantly differed between tree diameter classes; in case of total aboveground biomass, the RMSE was ca. 20% of the average biomass weight in a given class up to a diameter of 45 cm, and then it rose sharply. The RMSE was higher in case of compartments with variable dimensions, such as branches and stump. RMSE was slightly higher in case of estimates produced using a beech-specific function than using that developed in the current study (average RMSE 27.95 and 29.42%, respectively); at the same time, beech-specific function overestimated lime stem biomass by ca 12%. The almost equal RMSE implies the usability of both parameterisations for lime biomass estimation, though the correction of the mentioned overestimation should be applied.