The article presents primary and secondary data collected in research on Creative Industry in South Baltic Region. In the article authors present the wide overview on creative industries in West Pomerania region and give the background on situation of creative industries in South Baltic Area. This region is particularly interesting in research considering the diversity in the development dynamics of the creative sector. In this region there are places leading in the development of the creative sector in Europe, as well as places where this sector is just beginning to develop and take advantage of the prevailing trends.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from the Rudnik Forest District on the selected meteorological elements and to develop a chronology of local tree-ring width and the annual sensitivity.
Based on the analysis, the site chronology of silver fir was developed and the strength of the relationship between the climate components and the width of annual rings was calculated. In addition, we examined the degree of homogeneity of short-term incremental response, rated the representativeness of the chronology and climate signal strength.
Having analysed the indicator years, namely 1932–2013, we concluded that the growth of firs was positively influenced mainly by air temperature in winter, and to a lesser extent, by precipitation in spring and summer. The main factors that limit its growth are cold winters, cool and low rainfall summers, and rainy springs.
The dietary preferences can enhance or reduce negative consequences of tobacco smoking. Thus, the smoking behavior and dietary habits of 99 patients treated against pulmonary, cardiological and gastroenterological diseases in specialist outpatient clinics in Rzeszów were analyzed. The survey questionnaire examined the relation between tobacco smoking and dietary preferences (quantity and regularity of food intake, and frequency of consumption of several foodstuffs) as well as health effects of smoking. Among the respondents, 48% were currently smoking (smokers), 16% declared themselves as formerly smoking ex-smokers) and 35% did not smoke (non-smokers). The cardiovascular and respiratory health problems were more common in smokers group, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). Smokers’ diet was low in healthy kind of food (i.e. vegetables, fruit, dairy product, antioxidative spices) and simultaneously was abundant in meat, strong coffee and alcohol (p<0.05) compared to non-smokers. For the ex-smokers greater attention to proper diet composition was observed. Based on the obtained results nutritional guidelines have been formulated to reduce the negative effects of smoking.
Introduction: Genotype VI of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) has pigeons and doves as its reservoir and is often termed pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1). The pathogenesis of PPMV-1 infections in poultry is largely obscure. It is known that PPMV-1 requires a series of passages in chickens before it becomes adapted to gallinaceous poultry.
Material and Methods: Changes in the genome of PPMV-1 were analysed after serial passages in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, using high-throughput sequencing. Additionally, histopathological lesions induced by PPMV-1 in experimentally inoculated pigeons, chickens, and turkeys were evaluated.
Results: Following six passages of PPMV-1 in chickens, 10 nonsynonymous substitutions were found including one (in the NP protein) which dominated the genetic pool of viral quasispecies. Histopathological changes induced by the post-passage PPMV-1 strain were more prominent than changes wrought by the pre-passaged PPMV-1 strain and the lesions were most intense in pigeons followed by chickens and turkeys.
Conclusion: PPMV-1 is highly adapted to pigeons and passaging through chickens results in the acquisition of novel amino acids in the polymerase complex, which may alter the pathogenic potential of the virus.
Introduction: Due to their immunostimulatory properties TLR ligands are used prophylactically to protect against a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens in mammals. Knowledge of the molecular and functional aspects of TLRs is essential for a better understanding of the immune system and resistance to diseases in birds. For that reason, this study attempted to determine the impact of TLR21 stimulation by its synthetic ligand (CpG ODN, class B) on the chicken immune system.
Material and Methods: Sixty embryonated chicken eggs were randomly allocated into three groups (control and two experimental groups). On day 18 of embryonic development, chickens in one experimental group were administered in ovo a low dose of CpG ODN and the birds of the second experimental group were given a high dose of the ligand. Spleens were collected at 1, 2, 5, and 10 days post-hatching (dph) for analysis of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 expression using qRT-PCR.
Results: Significant differences were observed in mRNA expression levels of all the measured cytokines associated with the modulation and regulation of the immune response at different time points.
Conclusion: The obtained data clearly demonstrate that immune response induction takes place after in ovo administration of class B CpG ODN, and that the ligand has the ability to induce cytokine responses in neonatal chicken spleen.
The transfer of toxic metals from soil to honey was studied based on two different areas of the Podkarpackie region located in the south-east part of Poland: U-urbanized and E-ecologically pure. The metal content was determined using the ICP-OES method with prior microwave mineralization of the soil, plant (goldenrod, dandelion, rapeseed, tilia and fir), bee bodies and honey samples collected from 10 sampling points (U-5 and E-5). The impact of soil pH on heavy metal mobility was also evaluated. It was found that Podkarpackie soils are less contaminated with heavy metals as compared to other regions of Poland and only in the case of cadmium an enhancement of the natural background level was observed. The migration of heavy metals, especially cadmium, in the soil-plant-bee-honey food chain was accelerated by soil acidity (p<0.05). The influence of human activity (region development) on heavy metals concentrations was not significant (p>0.05). Based on bioaccumulation factors, goldenrod and dandelion plants were confirmed as cadmium accumulators. It was also confirmed that the bodies of bees act as an effective barrier to the migration of heavy metals from the environment to honey, due to this, honey is free from these metals and safe for human consumption.
Introduction: The aim of the study was to test the utility of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA® Cards) for molecular detection and storage of avian influenza virus (AIV). Material and Methods: There were two strains of AIV used in the study: low pathogenicity H7N1 and high pathogenicity H5N1 subtypes. Detection of viral material was conducted using molecular RT-PCR and rRT- PCR method. Results: The infectivity of LPAIV/H7N1 and HPAIV/H5N1 was completely inactivated within 1 h and 24 h after adsorption to FTA® Cards at room temperature, respectively. Viruses stored on FTA® Cards had detection limit approximately 1 log10 lower than live viruses. Viral RNA of both strains were detectable on the cards by rRT-PCR for a minimum of 150 d, irrespectively of storage temperatures (room temperature, -20ºC). RNA was also detected in all samples obtained from SPF chickens experimentally infected with HPAI/H5N1 on 3rd and 4th day post-infection (p.i.).
Conclusion: FTA® Cards enable safe and effective alternative transport of samples for molecular diagnosis of AIV.
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of thermal conversion temperature and plant material addition to sewage sludge on the PAHs content and the activity of selected γ-radionuclides in biochars, and to conduct an ecotoxicological assessment. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials at 300°C and such temperature caused an increase in the contents of 2- and 3-ring hydrocarbons. During the pyrolysis of organic materials at 600°C, the amount of the following compounds was reduced in biochars: benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. Among γ-radioisotopes of the elements, natural radiogenic isotopes were dominant. 137Cs was the only artificial radioactive isotope. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of municipal sewage sludge and plant materials revealed that isotope 40K had the highest radioactive activity. In the case of other analysed nuclides, activities of 212Pb, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 137Cs were determined after the sample pyrolysis. The extracts from the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials were non-toxic to Vibrio fischeri.