Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński
Correlations Between Asparagus Crop and the Year of Cropping, Day of Harvest, Sugar Contents in Storage Roots and Spears and Air Temperature
The study, carried out at the "Marcelin" Experimental Station in Poznan during harvest seasons 2000-2002, was focused on the determination of the correlation between daily yield of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and soluble sugar contents in spears and storage roots, temperature, the year of cropping and day of harvest.
A positive correlation between daily yield and the year of harvest, daily fructose content in storage roots and spears, sucrose content in spears and temperature was documented, in contrast to the negative correlation with glucose and sucrose contents in roots, glucose content in spears and daily yield.
Mikołaj Knaflewski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Monika Gąsecka and Jerzy Stachowiak
Yielding of Asparagus Depending on Harvest Ending Date
The field experiment focused on the determination of yielding of asparagus cv. ‘Thielim’ in relation to harvest duration: traditional (until June 20th), shortened (June 10th) and prolonged (30th June) harvests. The variation in harvest ending dates did not have a significant influence on the total, marketable and non-marketable yields as well as on the crown weight and the number of storage roots. However, the extension of harvest time until June 30th resulted in an increase in the number of spears in the total and marketable yields, accompanied by a decrease in their diameter. Also prolonging harvest affected negatively the summer stalk size. During harvest until June 10th asparagus plants probably did not use their full yielding potential, because of too short harvest time. It resulted in increased height, weight, light absorption of summer stalks, leaf area index (LAI) and the total of cross-section areas of summer stalks (PPPA) with no significant differences in yield.
Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Jerzy Stachowiak, Monika Gąsecka and Mikołaj Knaflewski
Sugar Content in Spears Versus Asparagus Yielding
This research was focused on determination of the correlation between soluble sugar content in green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears and yield. In 2000-2002, green spears of the cultivar 'Thielim' were cut every day from the end of April to the middle of June. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose content was determined every 10-14 days by means of an HPLC method. The content of fructose was not correlated but the ratio of fructose to glucose content was positively correlated with the yield (r=0.92). When the ratio of fructose to glucose content in spears increased by 0.13, the yield increased by about 1 t·ha-1. Content of glucose, sucrose and soluble sugar were negatively correlated with yield (r = -0.76 r = -0.77 and -0.79, respectively). When glucose, sucrose and soluble sugar content in spears decreased by 0.29 mg·g-1, 0.20 mg·g-1 and 0.85 mg·g-1, respectively, the yield increased by about 1 t·ha-1. During the first twenty days of harvest the calculated amount of soluble sugar accumulated in harvested spears was correlated with the yield in the remaining harvest period as well as in the whole harvest season. The effect of temperature and solar radiation on the yield and sugar content in spears is discussed in the paper.
Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński
Changes in Glucose, Fructose and Sucrose Contents in Storage Roots of Asparagus During Vegetation Period
The objective of the field experiment conducted during 2000-2002 was to determine changes in glucose, fructose and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) cv. ‘Thielim’ during vegetation period. The aim of the study was also to estimate the correlation between yield and the content of carbohydrates. Sum of glucose, fructose and sucrose contents (GFS) and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus decreased at the beginning and increased at the end of harvest. Generally glucose and fructose for carbohydrate contents increased, while that of sucrose decreased. A possitive correlation was observed for sucrose and GFS between asparagus spears and storage roots (r=0.821 and r=0.641, respectively). A negative correlation between the yield of spears and glucose, sucrose and GFS contents in storage roots was found (r=0.595, r=0.624, r=0.794, respectively). Positive correlations were found between total yield during harvest and year of cropping, average GFS content in storage roots during harvest, sum of radiation during harvest, while negative correlation between total yield and sum of average daily air temperature during harvest was found.
Janusz Kudła, Monika Stachowiak-Kudła and Adam Figurski
Purpose: The article addressed the problem of relationships between university funding and efficiency on the one hand and the quality of teaching and research on the other.
Methodology: The measurement of teaching and research quality in Polish universities was derived from two sources: 1) evaluation scores of teaching quality given to universities by the Polish Accreditation Committee, and 2) the research category grades given to university departments or units by the Polish Committee for Evaluation of Scientific Units. Subsequently, the quality measurements were correlated with financial indicators and efficiency scores obtained from data envelopment analysis.
Findings: The correlation and regression results indicated that public universities that have received higher scores of teaching quality simultaneously have higher average scientific categories. There was also a substantial relationship between the revenue per student and the revenue per teacher and variables describing quality but the regression analysis exhibited opposite directions regarding the type of quality indicator.
Research limitations/implications: The quality of teaching and research at universities was assessed despite the limited availability of internal information gathered from higher education institutions (HEIs).
Practical implications: The authorities of a university can simultaneously track the improvement of quality or financial efficiency without losing their interdependence when reforms of HEI operations are conducted.
Originality: The study proposed new measurements of quality derived from external evaluation bodies and investigated the relations of these measures with selected financial and efficiency indicators.
Marek Gehrke, Beata Blaszak, Monika Stachowiak, Izabela Szczerbal, Barbara Stefańska, Jędrzej M. Jaśkowski, Włodzimierz Nowak and Marek Świtoński
A comprehensive description is presented of four novel cases ofamorphus globosus (ag) foetuses originating from multiple pregnancies of Polish Holstein cows.
Material and Methods
Four amorphic foetuses were delivered by three cows. Tissue samples were collected during autopsy, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue samples of abnormal foetuses and from blood leukocytes of their healthy siblings. PCR reactions were used to reveal the presence of Y-linked genes (SRY and AMELY) and an X-linked gene (AMELX).
All foetuses were classified to the groupholoacardius amorphous (anideus). Molecular analysis clearly showed that at 17 microsatellite loci, the studied amorphous foetuses had identical genotypes to the viable co-twins.
Foetuses had monozygotic origin. Histological analysis showed a low level of development of tissues of meso- and ectodermal origin, as well as features of degrading patterns.
Adrian Grzemski, Monika Stachowiak, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Monika Mankowska, Paulina Krzeminska, Maciej Gogulski, Roman Aleksiewicz, Maciej Szydlowski, Marek Switonski and Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk
Obesity is a serious problem in numerous dog breeds, but knowledge of its hereditary background is scarce. On the contrary, numerous DNA polymorphisms associated with human obesity have been identified, with the strongest effect being demonstrated for FTO gene. We used targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) to search for polymorphisms in the region harboring FTO and IRX3 in 32 Labrador dogs. Moreover, we investigated the selected regions of FTO and IRX3, orthologous to the human regions associated with obesity, in 165 Labradors. For all dogs, the following information was available: age, sex, gonadal status, body weight, and body conformation score (BCS). The use of tNGS revealed 12,217 polymorphisms, but none of these obtained significance when lean and obese dogs were compared. Study of two SNPs in the 5’-flanking region of FTO in 165 dogs – creating two upstream reading frames (uORFs) – also showed no association with body weight and BCS but suggested the need for improvement in FTO annotation. No polymorphism was found in the 5’UTR of IRX3. Additionally, no differences of CpG islands methylation status between lean and obese dogs were found. Our study suggests that FTO and IRX3 are not useful markers of obesity in Labrador dogs.
Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak and Mikołaj Knaflewski
In order to examine the effect of plant age on asparagus yielding, the number and weight of spears were analyzed. The experiment was carried out on 1-, 4- and 7-year-old plants in the aeroponic system with recirculation. The results showed that the spear number and thus also the yield were not plant age dependent, while spear diameter and their weight were. Taking into account both crown weight and the age of plants, a 26% variation in spear diameter and a 27% variation in mean spear weight were explained. Determination of dry weight and carbohydrate contents in storage roots showed these traits to be independent of asparagus plant age, except for total carbohydrate content per plant. During harvest dry weight, % Brix, sucrose, fructan and total carbohydrates contents losses were also recorded.
Monika Gąsecka, Włodzimierz Krzesińsk, Jerzy Stachowiak and Mikołaj Knaflewski
In order to determine the effect of temperature on asparagus yielding in the case of different crown sizes, asparagus plants were planted in growth chambers, in an aeroponic system with recirculation. The results show that asparagus yield was dependent on air temperature and crown size; however, crown size had a greater influence on the yield. The diameter and weight of the asparagus spears were also dependent on crown size. Higher dry weight content, degrees Brix, fructan and total carbohydrate content in storage roots were documented in large crown asparagus plants before and after harvest. Large sized crowns were also shown to build thicker and higher ferns.