Introduction. The profession of midwife belongs to the medical ones. In the Polish legal system, the definition it is not of a legislative nature. It refers to liberal professions associated with practical medical knowledge. However, the profession of midwife has also been included in the catalog of liberal professions under the commercial law, and the legislature allows the practice of midwife in the form of a partnership.
Nevertheless, the majority of midwives working in Poland is employed on the basis of an employment relationship and a civil law agreement, while exercising practice in the form of partnership is not a frequent choice.
Aim. The purpose of this article is to profile the midwife partnership, including the approximation of its essence and purpose, as well as the rights and obligations of the partner, and discussion of the terms and conditions of the company's medical business.
Summary. Compared to other commercial companies, a limited liability partnership company is an attractive legal form for exercising the profession of midwife, primarily because of the partner's liability for the company's obligations. At the same time, the midwife partnership company, by combining both a reduction of personal responsibility, transparent representation with the use of possibility of appointing a board, and the possibility of accumulating financial and intellectual capital, meets the demands of the free services market and growing competition, thereby fostering service quality.
Marta Piróg, Olga Padała, Marta Podgórniak, Maciej Putowski, Monika Sadowska and Wdowiak Artur
Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the awareness of testicular cancer and prevention behaviors among male residents of the Lubelskie Province.
Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2015 and involved 131 men aged 17 to 38. A questionnaire designed by the authors was used as a research tool. The obtained results were analyzed statistically and the Chi2 test was used.
Results. Using a 0-5 scale, every fourth participant assessed their knowledge as 0, while only 7% assessed it as 5. The average level was 3.1 among students of medicine, while among students of other faculties it was 1.6. The Internet was cited as the most popular source of information about testicular cancer, while the healthcare staff was ranked as the last one. As much as 83.2% of men from the study group had never learnt how to perform testicular self-examination properly. Medical students were more likely to carry out this procedure regularly - 32%, compared to non-medical students - 12%.
Conclusions. The awareness of testicular cancer among the population of young men from the Lubelskie Province is insufficient, which is the main cause of their failure to perform regular self-examinations. The role of general practitioners is too little, despite the fact that most males consider them as the most reliable source of the information. Implementation of education and training programs for prevention of testicular cancer is required.
Błaszczyk W. Janusz, Monika Beck, Justyna Szczepańska, Dorota Sadowska, Bogdan Bacik, Grzegorz Juras and Kajetan J. Słomka
Despite the obvious advantages and popularity of static posturography, universal standards for posturographic tests have not been developed thus far. Most of the center-of-foot pressure (COP) indices are strongly dependent on an individual experimental design, and are susceptible to distortions, which makes results of their analysis incomparable. In this research, we present a novel approach to the analysis of the COP trajectory based on the directional features of postural sway. Our novel output measures: the sway directional indices (DI) and sway vector (SV) were applied to assess the postural stability in the group of young able-bodied subjects. Towards this aim, the COP trajectories were recorded in 100 students standing still for 60 s, with eyes open (EO) and then, with eyes closed (EC). Each record was subdivided then into 20, 30 and 60 s samples. Interclass correlation coefficients were calculated from the samples. The controlled variables (visual conditions) uniquely affected the output measures, but only in case of proper signal pretreatment (low-pass filtering). In filtering below 6 Hz, the DI and SV provided a unique set of descriptors for postural control. Both sway measures were highly independent of the trial length and the sampling frequency, and were unaffected by the sampling noise. Directional indices of COP filtered at 6 Hz showed high to very high reliability, with ICC range of 0.7-0.9. Results of a single 60 s trial are sufficient to reach acceptable reliability for both DI and SV. In conclusion, the directional sway measures may be recommended as the primary standard in static posturography.
Marina S. Ladygina, Elzbieta Skladnik-Sadowska, Dobromil R. Zaloga, Karol Malinowski, Marek J. Sadowski, Monika Kubkowska, Ewa Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Marian Paduch, Ewa Zielinska, Ryszard Miklaszewski, Igor E. Garkusha and Vladimir A. Gribkov
In this note experimental studies of tungsten (W) samples irradiated by intense plasma-ion streams are reported. Measurements were performed using the modified plasma focus device DPF-1000U equipped with an axial gas-puffing system. The main diagnostic tool was a Mechelle®900 optical spectrometer. The electron density of a freely propagating plasma stream (i.e., the plasma stream observed without any target inside the vacuum chamber) was estimated on the basis of the half-width of the Dβ spectral line, taking into account the linear Stark effect. For a freely propagating plasma stream the maximum electron density amounted to about 1.3 × 1017 cm−3 and was reached during the maximum plasma compression. The plasma electron density depends on the initial conditions of the experiments. It was thus important to determine first the plasma flow characteristics before attempting any target irradiation. These data were needed for comparison with plasma characteristics after an irradiation of the investigated target. In fact, spectroscopic measurements performed during interactions of plasma streams with the investigated W samples showed many WI and WII spectral lines. The surface erosion was determined from mass losses of the irradiated samples. Changes on the surfaces of the irradiated samples were also investigated with an optical microscope and some sputtering and melting zones were observed.
Dobromil R. Zaloga, Elzbieta Skladnik-Sadowska, Monika Kubkowska, Marina S. Ladygina, Karol Malinowski, Roch Kwiatkowski, Marek J. Sadowski, Marian Paduch, Ewa Zielinska and Vadym A. Makhlaj
The results are presented of the optical spectra measurements for free plasma streams generated with the use of the modified DPF-1000U machine. This facility was recently equipped with a gas injection system (the so-called gas-puff) placed on the symmetry axis behind the central opening in the inner electrode. The DPF-1000U experimental chamber was filled up with pure deuterium at the initial pressure of 1.6 or 2.4 mbar. Additionally, when the use was made of the gas-puff system about 1 cm3 of pure deuterium was injected at the pressure of 2 bars. The gas injection was initiated 1.5 or 2 ms before the triggering of the main discharge. The investigated plasma discharges were powered from a condenser bank charged initially to 23 kV (corresponding to the energy of 352 kJ), and the maximum discharge current amounted to about 1.8 MA. In order to investigate properties of a dense plasma column formed during DPF-1000U discharges the use was made of the optical emission spectroscopy. The optical spectra were recorded along the line of sight perpendicular to the vacuum chamber, using a Mechelle®900 spectrometer. The recent analysis of all the recorded spectra made it possible to compare the temporal changes in the electron density of a freely propagating plasma stream for discharges without and with the gas-puffing. Using this data an appropriate mode of operation of the DPF-1000U facility could be determined.
Maryna S. Ladygina, Elzbieta Skladnik-Sadowska, Dobromil R. Zaloga, Marek J. Sadowski, Monika Kubkowska, Ewa Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Natalia Krawczyk, Marian Paduch, Ryszard Miklaszewski and Igor E. Garkusha
This paper presents results of experimental studies of tungsten samples of 99.95% purity, which were irradiated by intense plasma-ion streams. The behaviour of tungsten, and particularly its structural change induced by high plasma loads, is of great importance for fusion technology. The reported measurements were performed within a modified PF-1000U plasma-focus facility operated at the IFPiLM in Warsaw, Poland. The working gas was pure deuterium. In order to determine the main plasma parameters and to study the behaviour of impurities at different instants of the plasma discharge, the optical emission spectroscopy was used. The dependence of plasma parameters on the initial charging voltage (16, 19 and 21 kV) was studied. Detailed optical measurements were performed during interactions of a plasma stream with the tungsten samples placed at the z-axis of the facility, at a distance of 6 cm from the electrode outlets. The recorded spectra showed distinct WI and WII spectral lines. Investigation of a target surface morphology, after its irradiation by intense plasma streams, was performed by means of an optical microscope. The observations revealed that some amounts of the electrodes material (mainly copper) were deposited upon the irradiated sample surface. In all the cases, melted zones were observed upon the irradiated target surface, and in experiments performed at the highest charging voltage there were formed some cracks.